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The Innate Immune Playbook for Restricting West Nile Virus Infection
Department of Pediatrics and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 September 2013; in revised form: 19 October 2013 / Accepted: 22 October 2013 / Published: 30 October 2013
Abstract: West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes annual epidemics of encephalitic disease throughout the world. Despite the ongoing risk to public health, no approved vaccines or therapies exist for use in humans to prevent or combat WNV infection. The innate immune response is critical for controlling WNV replication, limiting virus-induced pathology, and programming protective humoral and cell-mediated immunity to WNV infection. The RIG-I like receptors, Toll-like receptors, and Nod-like receptors detect and respond to WNV by inducing a potent antiviral defense program, characterized by production of type I IFN, IL-1β and expression of antiviral effector genes. Recent research efforts have focused on uncovering the mechanisms of innate immune sensing, antiviral effector genes that inhibit WNV, and countermeasures employed by WNV to antagonize innate immune cellular defenses. In this review, we highlight the major research findings pertaining to innate immune regulation of WNV infection.
Keywords: flavivirus; pathogenesis; encephalitis; RIG-I-like receptor; Toll-like receptor; Nod-like receptor; antiviral gene; innate immunity; interferon; West Nile virus
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Quicke, K.M.; Suthar, M.S. The Innate Immune Playbook for Restricting West Nile Virus Infection. Viruses 2013, 5, 2643-2658.
Quicke KM, Suthar MS. The Innate Immune Playbook for Restricting West Nile Virus Infection. Viruses. 2013; 5(11):2643-2658.
Quicke, Kendra M.; Suthar, Mehul S. 2013. "The Innate Immune Playbook for Restricting West Nile Virus Infection." Viruses 5, no. 11: 2643-2658.