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West Nile Virus Antibody Prevalence in Horses of Ukraine
Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Südufer 10, D-17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany
Institute of Veterinary Medicine, National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Donetska Str. 30, Kyiv, 03151 Ukraine
Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Institute of Epidemiology, Seestraße 55, D-16868 Wusterhausen, Germany
Institut für Virologie, Zentrum für Infektionsmedizin, Freie Universität Berlin, Philippstr. 13, D-14163 Berlin, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 August 2013; in revised form: 30 September 2013 / Accepted: 1 October 2013 / Published: 4 October 2013
Abstract: West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus of global importance. Over the last two decades, it has been responsible for significant numbers of cases of illness in humans and animals in many parts of the world. In Ukraine, WNV infections in humans and birds were first reported more than 25 years ago, yet the current epidemiological status is quite unclear. In this study, serum samples from over 300 equines were collected and screened in order to detect current WNV activity in Ukraine with the goal to estimate the risk of infection for humans and horses. Sera were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization assay (NT) to detect WNV-specific antibodies. The results clearly revealed that WNV circulates in most of the regions from which samples were obtained, shown by a WNV seroprevalence rate of 13.5% of examined horses. This is the first topical report indicating the presence of WNV infections in horses in Ukraine, and the results of this study provide evidence of a widespread WNV circulation in this country.
Keywords: West Nile virus; neutralization; ELISA; serology; horse; Ukraine, prevalence, flavivirus
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Ziegler, U.; Skrypnyk, A.; Keller, M.; Staubach, C.; Bezymennyi, M.; Damiani, A.M.; Osterrieder, N.; Groschup, M.H. West Nile Virus Antibody Prevalence in Horses of Ukraine. Viruses 2013, 5, 2469-2482.
Ziegler U, Skrypnyk A, Keller M, Staubach C, Bezymennyi M, Damiani AM, Osterrieder N, Groschup MH. West Nile Virus Antibody Prevalence in Horses of Ukraine. Viruses. 2013; 5(10):2469-2482.
Ziegler, Ute; Skrypnyk, Artem; Keller, Markus; Staubach, Christoph; Bezymennyi, Maksym; Damiani, Armando M.; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Groschup, Martin H. 2013. "West Nile Virus Antibody Prevalence in Horses of Ukraine." Viruses 5, no. 10: 2469-2482.