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T Cell Memory in the Context of Persistent Herpes Viral Infections
Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 July 2012; in revised form: 18 July 2012 / Accepted: 19 July 2012 / Published: 20 July 2012
Abstract: The generation of a functional memory T cell pool upon primary encounter with an infectious pathogen is, in combination with humoral immunity, an essential process to confer protective immunity against reencounters with the same pathogen. A prerequisite for the generation and maintenance of long-lived memory T cells is the clearance of antigen after infection, which is fulfilled upon resolution of acute viral infections. Memory T cells play also a fundamental role during persistent viral infections by contributing to relative control and immuosurveillance of active replication or viral reactivation, respectively. However, the dynamics, the phenotype, the mechanisms of maintenance and the functionality of memory T cells which develop upon acute/resolved infection as opposed to chronic/latent infection differ substantially. In this review we summarize current knowledge about memory CD8 T cell responses elicited during α-, β-, and γ-herpes viral infections with major emphasis on the induction, maintenance and function of virus-specific memory CD8 T cells during viral latency and we discuss how the peculiar features of these memory CD8 T cell responses are related to the biology of these persistently infecting viruses.
Keywords: herpes virus infection; CD8 T cells; memory inflation: secondary lymphoid organs; peripheral tissues; CD8 T cell function; CD8 T cell maintenance; CD8 T cell phenotype
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MDPI and ACS Style
Torti, N.; Oxenius, A. T Cell Memory in the Context of Persistent Herpes Viral Infections. Viruses 2012, 4, 1116-1143.
Torti N, Oxenius A. T Cell Memory in the Context of Persistent Herpes Viral Infections. Viruses. 2012; 4(7):1116-1143.
Torti, Nicole; Oxenius, Annette. 2012. "T Cell Memory in the Context of Persistent Herpes Viral Infections." Viruses 4, no. 7: 1116-1143.