Next Article in Journal
RNA-Sequencing Analysis of 5' Capped RNAs Identifies Many New Differentially Expressed Genes in Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection
Next Article in Special Issue
Paramyxovirus Fusion and Entry: Multiple Paths to a Common End
Previous Article in Journal
Daphne Genkwa Sieb. et Zucc. Water-Soluble Extracts Act on Enterovirus 71 by Inhibiting Viral Entry
Previous Article in Special Issue
Novel Approaches to Inhibit HIV Entry
Viruses 2012, 4(4), 557-580; doi:10.3390/v4040557
Review

Ready, Set, Fuse! The Coronavirus Spike Protein and Acquisition of Fusion Competence

 and
*
Received: 15 March 2012 / Revised: 29 March 2012 / Accepted: 2 April 2012 / Published: 12 April 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-Induced Membrane Fusion)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [692 KB, uploaded 12 May 2015]   |   Browse Figures

Abstract

Coronavirus-cell entry programs involve virus-cell membrane fusions mediated by viral spike (S) proteins. Coronavirus S proteins acquire membrane fusion competence by receptor interactions, proteolysis, and acidification in endosomes. This review describes our current understanding of the S proteins, their interactions with and their responses to these entry triggers. We focus on receptors and proteases in prompting entry and highlight the type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) known to activate several virus fusion proteins. These and other proteases are essential cofactors permitting coronavirus infection, conceivably being in proximity to cell-surface receptors and thus poised to split entering spike proteins into the fragments that refold to mediate membrane fusion. The review concludes by noting how understanding of coronavirus entry informs antiviral therapies.
Keywords: coronavirus; virus entry; viral pathogenesis; spike protein; carcinoembryonic antigen; angiotensin converting enzyme 2; endocytosis; cathepsin; transmembrane protease; membrane fusion coronavirus; virus entry; viral pathogenesis; spike protein; carcinoembryonic antigen; angiotensin converting enzyme 2; endocytosis; cathepsin; transmembrane protease; membrane fusion
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Heald-Sargent, T.; Gallagher, T. Ready, Set, Fuse! The Coronavirus Spike Protein and Acquisition of Fusion Competence. Viruses 2012, 4, 557-580.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert