Viruses 2012, 4(12), 3812-3830; doi:10.3390/v4123812
Review

Immune Responses to West Nile Virus Infection in the Central Nervous System

1 Departments of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA 2 Departments of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA 3 Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 November 2012; in revised form: 7 December 2012 / Accepted: 10 December 2012 / Published: 17 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Infections of the CNS)
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Abstract: West Nile virus (WNV) continues to cause outbreaks of severe neuroinvasive disease in humans and other vertebrate animals in the United States, Europe, and other regions of the world. This review discusses our understanding of the interactions between virus and host that occur in the central nervous system (CNS), the outcome of which can be protection, viral pathogenesis, or immunopathogenesis. We will focus on defining the current state of knowledge of WNV entry, tropism, and host immune response in the CNS, all of which affect the balance between injury and successful clearance.
Keywords: flavivirus; innate immunity; adaptive immunity; pathogenesis; immunopathogenesis; neuron; brain

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cho, H.; Diamond, M.S. Immune Responses to West Nile Virus Infection in the Central Nervous System. Viruses 2012, 4, 3812-3830.

AMA Style

Cho H, Diamond MS. Immune Responses to West Nile Virus Infection in the Central Nervous System. Viruses. 2012; 4(12):3812-3830.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cho, Hyelim; Diamond, Michael S. 2012. "Immune Responses to West Nile Virus Infection in the Central Nervous System." Viruses 4, no. 12: 3812-3830.

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