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Human Metapneumovirus Antagonism of Innate Immune Responses
Departments of Pediatrics, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Texas, USA
Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Texas, USA
Sealy Center for Molecular Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Texas, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 November 2012; in revised form: 20 November 2012 / Accepted: 30 November 2012 / Published: 7 December 2012
Abstract: Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a recently identified RNA virus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family, which includes several major human and animal pathogens. Epidemiological studies indicate that hMPV is a significant human respiratory pathogen with worldwide distribution. It is associated with respiratory illnesses in children, adults, and immunocompromised patients, ranging from upper respiratory tract infections to severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Interferon (IFN) represents a major line of defense against virus infection, and in response, viruses have evolved countermeasures to inhibit IFN production as well as IFN signaling. Although the strategies of IFN evasion are similar, the specific mechanisms by which paramyxoviruses inhibit IFN responses are quite diverse. In this review, we will present an overview of the strategies that hMPV uses to subvert cellular signaling in airway epithelial cells, the major target of infection, as well as in primary immune cells.
Keywords: metapneumovirus; viral proteins; innate immune system; interferon antagonism
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Kolli, D.; Bao, X.; Casola, A. Human Metapneumovirus Antagonism of Innate Immune Responses. Viruses 2012, 4, 3551-3571.
Kolli D, Bao X, Casola A. Human Metapneumovirus Antagonism of Innate Immune Responses. Viruses. 2012; 4(12):3551-3571.
Kolli, Deepthi; Bao, Xiaoyong; Casola, Antonella. 2012. "Human Metapneumovirus Antagonism of Innate Immune Responses." Viruses 4, no. 12: 3551-3571.