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Orf-I and Orf-II-Encoded Proteins in HTLV-1 Infection and Persistence
Animal Models and Retroviral Vaccines Section, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, MD 20892, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 April 2011; in revised form: 25 May 2011 / Accepted: 26 May 2011 / Published: 17 June 2011
Abstract: The 3' end of the human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type-1 (HTLV-1) genome contains four overlapping open reading frames (ORF) that encode regulatory proteins. Here, we review current knowledge of HTLV-1 orf-I and orf-II protein products. Singly spliced mRNA from orf-I encodes p12, which can be proteolytically cleaved to generate p8, while differential splicing of mRNA from orf-II results in production of p13 and p30. These proteins have been demonstrated to modulate transcription, apoptosis, host cell activation and proliferation, virus infectivity and transmission, and host immune responses. Though these proteins are not essential for virus replication in vitro, p8, p12, p13, and p30 have an important role in the establishment and maintenance of HTLV-1 infection in vivo.
Keywords: human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type-1; HTLV-1; ORF-I; ORF-II; p8; p12; p13; p30
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Edwards, D.; Fenizia, C.; Gold, H.; Castro-Amarante, M.F.; Buchmann, C.; Pise-Masison, C.A.; Franchini, G. Orf-I and Orf-II-Encoded Proteins in HTLV-1 Infection and Persistence. Viruses 2011, 3, 861-885.
Edwards D, Fenizia C, Gold H, Castro-Amarante MF, Buchmann C, Pise-Masison CA, Franchini G. Orf-I and Orf-II-Encoded Proteins in HTLV-1 Infection and Persistence. Viruses. 2011; 3(6):861-885.
Edwards, Dustin; Fenizia, Claudio; Gold, Heather; Castro-Amarante, Maria Fernanda de; Buchmann, Cody; Pise-Masison, Cynthia A.; Franchini, Genoveffa. 2011. "Orf-I and Orf-II-Encoded Proteins in HTLV-1 Infection and Persistence." Viruses 3, no. 6: 861-885.