Viruses 2011, 3(10), 1933-1958; doi:10.3390/v3101933
Review

Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems

1 Center for Virus Research, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA 2 Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, School of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
Received: 7 September 2011; in revised form: 1 October 2011 / Accepted: 10 October 2011 / Published: 20 October 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paleovirology)
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [231 KB, uploaded 25 October 2011 11:41 CEST]
Abstract: All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the ‘Big Bang’ theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.
Keywords: virus evolution; prophage; evolution of immunity; restriction modification; addiction modules; toxin antitoxin; apoptosis; CRISPR; RNAi; interferon; adaptive immunity; T-cell receptor; MHC; ERV; HERV; LTR

Article Statistics

Load and display the download statistics.

Citations to this Article

Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Villarreal, L.P. Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems. Viruses 2011, 3, 1933-1958.

AMA Style

Villarreal LP. Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems. Viruses. 2011; 3(10):1933-1958.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Villarreal, Luis P. 2011. "Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems." Viruses 3, no. 10: 1933-1958.

Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert