This article is
- freely available
Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems
Center for Virus Research, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, School of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
Received: 7 September 2011; in revised form: 1 October 2011 / Accepted: 10 October 2011 / Published: 20 October 2011
Abstract: All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the ‘Big Bang’ theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.
Keywords: virus evolution; prophage; evolution of immunity; restriction modification; addiction modules; toxin antitoxin; apoptosis; CRISPR; RNAi; interferon; adaptive immunity; T-cell receptor; MHC; ERV; HERV; LTR
Article StatisticsClick here to load and display the download statistics.
Notes: Multiple requests from the same IP address are counted as one view.
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Villarreal, L.P. Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems. Viruses 2011, 3, 1933-1958.
Villarreal LP. Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems. Viruses. 2011; 3(10):1933-1958.
Villarreal, Luis P. 2011. "Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems." Viruses 3, no. 10: 1933-1958.