Viruses 2011, 3(10), 1933-1958; doi:10.3390/v3101933

Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems

Received: 7 September 2011; in revised form: 1 October 2011 / Accepted: 10 October 2011 / Published: 20 October 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paleovirology)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the ‘Big Bang’ theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.
Keywords: virus evolution; prophage; evolution of immunity; restriction modification; addiction modules; toxin antitoxin; apoptosis; CRISPR; RNAi; interferon; adaptive immunity; T-cell receptor; MHC; ERV; HERV; LTR
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MDPI and ACS Style

Villarreal, L.P. Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems. Viruses 2011, 3, 1933-1958.

AMA Style

Villarreal LP. Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems. Viruses. 2011; 3(10):1933-1958.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Villarreal, Luis P. 2011. "Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems." Viruses 3, no. 10: 1933-1958.

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