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Viruses 2010, 2(9), 1984-1999; doi:10.3390/v2091984
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Walleye Dermal Sarcoma Virus: Molecular Biology and Oncogenesis

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Received: 6 July 2010 / Revised: 5 August 2010 / Accepted: 2 September 2010 / Published: 22 September 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Transformation by RNA Viruses)
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Abstract

Retroviruses have been detected in most vertebrate species and are etiologic agents of a variety of neoplastic diseases. The study of retroviruses has been instrumental in uncovering the molecular mechanisms responsible for oncogenesis. Retroviruses have been isolated from three neoplastic diseases in fish, two of which affect the dermis and regress naturally coincident with spawning. This feature provides a unique model to study mechanisms of tumor development and regression. Three complex retroviruses, isolated from walleye (Sander vitreus) with dermal sarcoma and epidermal hyperplasia, are the members of the newest retroviral genus, Epsilonretrovirus. Three accessory proteins, encoded by walleye dermal sarcoma virus (WDSV), function in the regulation of host and viral gene expression and cell cycle, alter cell-signaling pathways to promote cell proliferation and block apoptosis, and, finally, induce apoptosis through dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential.
Keywords: retrovirus; epsilonretrovirus; oncogenesis; walleye dermal sarcoma virus; fish; retroviral cyclin; RACK1; apoptosis; mitochondria retrovirus; epsilonretrovirus; oncogenesis; walleye dermal sarcoma virus; fish; retroviral cyclin; RACK1; apoptosis; mitochondria
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Rovnak, J.; Quackenbush, S.L. Walleye Dermal Sarcoma Virus: Molecular Biology and Oncogenesis. Viruses 2010, 2, 1984-1999.

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