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Walleye Dermal Sarcoma Virus: Molecular Biology and Oncogenesis
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, 80523, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 July 2010; in revised form: 5 August 2010 / Accepted: 2 September 2010 / Published: 22 September 2010
Abstract: Retroviruses have been detected in most vertebrate species and are etiologic agents of a variety of neoplastic diseases. The study of retroviruses has been instrumental in uncovering the molecular mechanisms responsible for oncogenesis. Retroviruses have been isolated from three neoplastic diseases in fish, two of which affect the dermis and regress naturally coincident with spawning. This feature provides a unique model to study mechanisms of tumor development and regression. Three complex retroviruses, isolated from walleye (Sander vitreus) with dermal sarcoma and epidermal hyperplasia, are the members of the newest retroviral genus, Epsilonretrovirus. Three accessory proteins, encoded by walleye dermal sarcoma virus (WDSV), function in the regulation of host and viral gene expression and cell cycle, alter cell-signaling pathways to promote cell proliferation and block apoptosis, and, finally, induce apoptosis through dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential.
Keywords: retrovirus; epsilonretrovirus; oncogenesis; walleye dermal sarcoma virus; fish; retroviral cyclin; RACK1; apoptosis; mitochondria
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Rovnak, J.; Quackenbush, S.L. Walleye Dermal Sarcoma Virus: Molecular Biology and Oncogenesis. Viruses 2010, 2, 1984-1999.
Rovnak J, Quackenbush SL. Walleye Dermal Sarcoma Virus: Molecular Biology and Oncogenesis. Viruses. 2010; 2(9):1984-1999.
Rovnak, Joel; Quackenbush, Sandra L. 2010. "Walleye Dermal Sarcoma Virus: Molecular Biology and Oncogenesis." Viruses 2, no. 9: 1984-1999.