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Viruses 2018, 10(9), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090497

Zoonotic Potential of Influenza A Viruses: A Comprehensive Overview

1
Institute of Medical Virology, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Schubertstrasse 81, 35392 Giessen, Germany
2
Center of Scientific Excellence for Influenza Viruses, National Research Centre (NRC), Giza 12622, Egypt
3
Institute of Molecular Virology and Cell Biology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) possess a great zoonotic potential as they are able to infect different avian and mammalian animal hosts, from which they can be transmitted to humans. This is based on the ability of IAV to gradually change their genome by mutation or even reassemble their genome segments during co-infection of the host cell with different IAV strains, resulting in a high genetic diversity. Variants of circulating or newly emerging IAVs continue to trigger global health threats annually for both humans and animals. Here, we provide an introduction on IAVs, highlighting the mechanisms of viral evolution, the host spectrum, and the animal/human interface. Pathogenicity determinants of IAVs in mammals, with special emphasis on newly emerging IAVs with pandemic potential, are discussed. Finally, an overview is provided on various approaches for the prevention of human IAV infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: Influenza A virus; zoonosis; pathogenicity; evolution; pandemic Influenza A virus; zoonosis; pathogenicity; evolution; pandemic
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Mostafa, A.; Abdelwhab, E.M.; Mettenleiter, T.C.; Pleschka, S. Zoonotic Potential of Influenza A Viruses: A Comprehensive Overview. Viruses 2018, 10, 497.

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