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Viruses 2018, 10(7), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070383

There Is Always Another Way! Cytomegalovirus’ Multifaceted Dissemination Schemes

Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
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Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Cytomegalovirus Research)
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Abstract

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a β-herpes virus that is a significant pathogen within immune compromised populations. HCMV morbidity is induced through viral dissemination and inflammation. Typically, viral dissemination is thought to follow Fenner’s hypothesis where virus replicates at the site of infection, followed by replication in the draining lymph nodes, and eventually replicating within blood filtering organs. Although CMVs somewhat follow Fenner’s hypothesis, they deviate from it by spreading primarily through innate immune cells as opposed to cell-free virus. Also, in vivo CMVs infect new cells via cell-to-cell spread and disseminate directly to secondary organs through novel mechanisms. We review the historic and recent literature pointing to CMV’s direct dissemination to secondary organs and the genes that it has evolved for increasing its ability to disseminate. We also highlight aspects of CMV infection for studying viral dissemination when using in vivo animal models. View Full-Text
Keywords: viral dissemination; innate immune cells; cytomegalovirus; pathogenesis; chemokines; Fenner hypothesis; neutrophils; monocytes viral dissemination; innate immune cells; cytomegalovirus; pathogenesis; chemokines; Fenner hypothesis; neutrophils; monocytes
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Jackson, J.W.; Sparer, T. There Is Always Another Way! Cytomegalovirus’ Multifaceted Dissemination Schemes. Viruses 2018, 10, 383.

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