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Viruses 2018, 10(7), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070362

Tick–Virus–Host Interactions at the Cutaneous Interface: The Nidus of Flavivirus Transmission

1
Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB), 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555-0609, USA
2
Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB), Galveston, TX 77555-0609, USA
3
Center for Tropical Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB), Galveston, TX 77555-0609, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 7 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Treatment of Tick-Borne Viral Pathogens)
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Abstract

Tick-borne viral diseases continue to emerge in the United States, as clearly evident from the increase in Powassan encephalitis virus, Heartland virus, and Bourbon virus infections. Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFVs) are transmitted to the mammalian host along with the infected tick saliva during blood-feeding. Successful tick feeding is facilitated by a complex repertoire of pharmacologically active salivary proteins/factors in tick saliva. These salivary factors create an immunologically privileged micro-environment in the host’s skin that influences virus transmission and pathogenesis. In this review, we will highlight tick determinants of TBFV transmission with a special emphasis on tick–virus–host interactions at the cutaneous interface. View Full-Text
Keywords: tick; flavivirus; saliva; skin; cutaneous; interface; feeding tick; flavivirus; saliva; skin; cutaneous; interface; feeding
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Hermance, M.E.; Thangamani, S. Tick–Virus–Host Interactions at the Cutaneous Interface: The Nidus of Flavivirus Transmission. Viruses 2018, 10, 362.

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