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Viruses 2018, 10(1), 30; doi:10.3390/v10010030

Metagenomic Virome Analysis of Culex Mosquitoes from Kenya and China

1
Key Laboratory of Agricultural and Environmental Microbiology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China
2
Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China
3
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
4
Veterinary Services Department, Kenya Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 40241, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
5
Mammalogy Section, National Museum of Kenya, P.O. Box 40658, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
6
Entomology Section, National Museum of Kenya, P.O. Box 40658, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 3 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Current Threats and Findings in Virology)
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Abstract

Many blood-feeding arthropods are known vectors of viruses that are a source of unprecedented global health concern. Mosquitoes are an integral part of these arthropod vectors. Advancements in next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics has expanded our knowledge on the richness of viruses harbored by arthropods. In the present study, we applied a metagenomic approach to determine the intercontinental virome diversity of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus in Kwale, Kenya and provinces of Hubei and Yunnan in China. Our results showed that viromes from the three locations were strikingly diverse and comprised 30 virus families specific to vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, and protozoa as well as unclassified group of viruses. Though sampled at different times, both Kwale and Hubei mosquito viromes were dominated by vertebrate viruses, in contrast to the Yunnan mosquito virome, which was dominated by insect-specific viruses. However, each virome was unique in terms of virus proportions partly influenced by type of ingested meals (blood, nectar, plant sap, environment substrates). The dominant vertebrate virus family in the Kwale virome was Papillomaviridae (57%) while in Hubei it was Herpesviridae (30%) and the Yunnan virome was dominated by an unclassified viruses group (27%). Given that insect-specific viruses occur naturally in their hosts, they should be the basis for defining the viromes. Hence, the dominant insect-specific viruses in Kwale, Hubei, and Yunnan were Baculoviridae, Nimaviridae and Iflaviridae, respectively. Our study is preliminary but contributes to growing and much needed knowledge, as mosquito viromes could be manipulated to prevent and control pathogenic arboviruses. View Full-Text
Keywords: Culex quinquefasciatus; Culex tritaeniorhynchus; virome; mosquito microbiome; metagenomics; emerging infectious diseases; insect-specific viruses Culex quinquefasciatus; Culex tritaeniorhynchus; virome; mosquito microbiome; metagenomics; emerging infectious diseases; insect-specific viruses
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Atoni, E.; Wang, Y.; Karungu, S.; Waruhiu, C.; Zohaib, A.; Obanda, V.; Agwanda, B.; Mutua, M.; Xia, H.; Yuan, Z. Metagenomic Virome Analysis of Culex Mosquitoes from Kenya and China. Viruses 2018, 10, 30.

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