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Viruses 2018, 10(1), 23; doi:10.3390/v10010023

Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein-Independent Rubella Infection of Keratinocytes and Resistance of First-Trimester Trophoblast Cells to Rubella Virus In Vitro

Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 30 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 4 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Current Threats and Findings in Virology)
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Rubella virus (RuV), which belongs to the family Togaviridae and genus Rubivirus, causes systemic infection in children and young adults and congenital rubella syndrome in developing fetuses if the infection occurs during pregnancy. The mechanisms of fetal infection by RuV are not completely understood. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is reported to be a cellular receptor for RuV; however, it is mainly expressed in the central nervous system. Therefore, it is thought that other receptors are also responsible for virus entry into susceptible cells. In this study, we found that first-trimester trophoblast cells were resistant to RuV. In addition, we showed that HaCaT cells (an immortalized keratinocyte cell line) that did not express MOG on their surface were infected with RuV. This finding is one of the first demonstrations of MOG-independent RuV infection of susceptible host cells and suggests that it is important to continue searching for alternative RuV receptors. In addition, this study reports the resistance of first-trimester trophoblast cells to RuV and suggests that utilizing an epithelial–mesenchymal transition approach to study the mechanisms of transplacental vertical RuV infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: rubella; first trimester; trophoblasts; receptor; keratinocytes; infection rubella; first trimester; trophoblasts; receptor; keratinocytes; infection

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Trinh, Q.D.; Pham, N.T.K.; Takada, K.; Komine-Aizawa, S.; Hayakawa, S. Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein-Independent Rubella Infection of Keratinocytes and Resistance of First-Trimester Trophoblast Cells to Rubella Virus In Vitro. Viruses 2018, 10, 23.

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