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Viruses 2018, 10(1), 12; doi:10.3390/v10010012

Sustained IFN-I Expression during Established Persistent Viral Infection: A “Bad Seed” for Protective Immunity

Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS)-Institut Armand-Frappier, 531 Boulevard des Prairies, Laval, H7V 1B7 QC, Canada
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Received: 11 December 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 27 December 2017 / Published: 30 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Homage to Mark Wainberg)
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Abstract

Type I interferons (IFN-I) are one of the primary immune defenses against viruses. Similar to all other molecular mechanisms that are central to eliciting protective immune responses, IFN-I expression is subject to homeostatic controls that regulate cytokine levels upon clearing the infection. However, in the case of established persistent viral infection, sustained elevation of IFN-I expression bears deleterious effects to the host and is today considered as the major driver of inflammation and immunosuppression. In fact, numerous emerging studies place sustained IFN-I expression as a common nexus in the pathogenesis of multiple chronic diseases including persistent infections with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), as well as the rodent-borne lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus clone 13 (LCMV clone 13). In this review, we highlight recent studies illustrating the molecular dysregulation and resultant cellular dysfunction in both innate and adaptive immune responses driven by sustained IFN-I expression. Here, we place particular emphasis on the efficacy of IFN-I receptor (IFNR) blockade towards improving immune responses against viral infections given the emerging therapeutic approach of blocking IFNR using neutralizing antibodies (Abs) in chronically infected patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustained IFN-I expression; IFNR blockade; persistent infection; exhaustion; immune activation/inflammation; immunosuppression; cell loss sustained IFN-I expression; IFNR blockade; persistent infection; exhaustion; immune activation/inflammation; immunosuppression; cell loss
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dagenais-Lussier, X.; Loucif, H.; Murira, A.; Laulhé, X.; Stäger, S.; Lamarre, A.; van Grevenynghe, J. Sustained IFN-I Expression during Established Persistent Viral Infection: A “Bad Seed” for Protective Immunity. Viruses 2018, 10, 12.

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