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Viruses 2018, 10(1), 11; doi:10.3390/v10010011

Cytomegaloviruses in a Community of Wild Nonhuman Primates in Taï National Park, Côte D’Ivoire

1
UFR de Biosciences/Laboratoire de Zoologie et Biologie Animale, Université Felix Houphouët Boigny, Abidjan BP 1174, Cote D’Ivoire
2
Centre de Recherche pour le Développement, Université Alassane Ouattara, Bouaké BP 1174, Cote D’Ivoire
3
Division 12 Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Viruses Affecting Immunocompromised Patients, Robert Koch Institute, Seestrasse 10, 13353 Berlin, Germany
4
Laboratoire National D’appui au Développement Agricole/Laboratoire Central de Pathologie Animale, Bingerville BP 206, Cote D’Ivoire
5
Epidemiology of Highly Pathogenic Microorganisms, Robert Koch Institute, 13353 Berlin, Germany
6
Viral Evolution, Robert Koch Institute, 13353 Berlin, Germany
Shared senior authorship.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 29 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Abstract

Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) are known to infect many mammals, including a number of nonhuman primates (NHPs). However, most data available arose from studies led on captive individuals and little is known about CMV diversity in wild NHPs. Here, we analyzed a community of wild nonhuman primates (seven species) in Taï National Park (TNP), Côte d’Ivoire, with two PCR systems targeting betaherpesviruses. CMV DNA was detected in 17/87 primates (4/7 species). Six novel CMVs were identified in sooty mangabeys, Campbell’s monkeys and Diana monkeys, respectively. In 3/17 positive individuals (from three NHP species), different CMVs were co-detected. A major part of the glycoprotein B coding sequences of the novel viruses was amplified and sequenced, and phylogenetic analyses were performed that included three previously discovered CMVs of western red colobus from TNP and published CMVs from other NHP species and geographic locations. We find that, despite this locally intensified sampling, NHP CMVs from TNP are completely host-specific, pinpointing the absence or rarity of cross-species transmission. We also show that on longer timescales the evolution of CMVs is characterized by frequent co-divergence with their hosts, although other processes, including lineage duplication and host switching, also have to be invoked to fully explain their evolutionary relationships. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytomegalovirus; nonhuman primate; genetic diversity; host specificity; co-divergence; Taï National Park; Côte d’Ivoire cytomegalovirus; nonhuman primate; genetic diversity; host specificity; co-divergence; Taï National Park; Côte d’Ivoire
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Anoh, A.E.; Murthy, S.; Akoua-Koffi, C.; Couacy-Hymann, E.; Leendertz, F.H.; Calvignac-Spencer, S.; Ehlers, B. Cytomegaloviruses in a Community of Wild Nonhuman Primates in Taï National Park, Côte D’Ivoire. Viruses 2018, 10, 11.

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