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Forests 2017, 8(1), 18; doi:10.3390/f8010018

Emerging Needle Blight Diseases in Atlantic Pinus Ecosystems of Spain

1
Production and Plant Protection, Neiker Tecnalia, Apartado 46, Vitoria Gasteiz, 01080 Álava, Spain
2
Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, P.O. Box 4400, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3, Canada
3
INIA-CIFOR, Carretera La Coruña Km 7.5, 28040 Madrid, Spain
4
Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute, University of Valladolid-INIA, Avenida Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia, Spain
5
Departamento de Química Analítica y Química Orgánica, Facultad de Química, Universitat Rovira I Virgili, Campus Sescelades, 43007 Tarragona, Spain
6
The tree lab, P.O. Box 11236, Palm Beach, Papamoa 3151, New Zealand
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Matteo Garbelotto and Paolo Gonthier
Received: 30 October 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 23 December 2016 / Published: 29 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Pathology and Plant Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2372 KB, uploaded 29 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

Red band needle blight caused by Dothistroma septosporum and D. pini, and brown spot needle blight caused by Lecanosticta acicola provoke severe and premature defoliation in Pinus, and subsequent reduction of photosynthetic surfaces, vitality, and growth in young and adult trees. The recurrent damage results in branch and tree death. Until recently, pine needle blight diseases have had only minor impacts on native and exotic forest trees in the North of Spain, but in the past five years, these pathogen species have spread widely and caused severe defoliation and mortality in exotic and native plantations of Pinus in locations where they were not detected before. In an attempt to understand the main causes of this outbreak and to define the effectiveness of owners’ management strategies, four research actions were implemented: a survey of the management activities implemented by the owners to reduce disease impact, the evaluation of specific symptoms and damage associated with infection, and the identification of the causative pathogenic species and their reproductive capacity. Morphological characteristics of the fungus and molecular identification were consistent with those of Lecanosticta acicola and Dothistroma spp., D. septosporum, D. Pini, and both mating types were present for the three identified pathogens. The local silvicultural management performed, mainly pruning and thinning, was not resulting in the expected improvement. The results of this study can be applied to establish guidelines for monitoring and controlling the spread of needle blight pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: needle blight; Pinus; defoliation; Dothistroma; Lecanosticta needle blight; Pinus; defoliation; Dothistroma; Lecanosticta
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ortíz de Urbina, E.; Mesanza, N.; Aragonés, A.; Raposo, R.; Elvira-Recuenco, M.; Boqué, R.; Patten, C.; Aitken, J.; Iturritxa, E. Emerging Needle Blight Diseases in Atlantic Pinus Ecosystems of Spain. Forests 2017, 8, 18.

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