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Forests 2016, 7(11), 269; doi:10.3390/f7110269

Soil and Stocking Effects on Caliciopsis Canker of Pinus strobus L.

1
Northeastern Area State & Private Forestry, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service (USFS), Durham, NH 03861, USA
2
USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Dover, NH 03861, USA
3
Maine Forest Service, Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry, Augusta, MA 04692, USA
4
New Hampshire Department of Resources and Economic Development, New Hampshire Division of Forests and Lands, Concord, NH 03861, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Matteo Garbelotto and Paolo Gonthier
Received: 6 September 2016 / Revised: 26 October 2016 / Accepted: 4 November 2016 / Published: 11 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Pathology and Plant Health)
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Abstract

Soil and stand density were found to be promising predictive variables associated with damage by the emerging disease of eastern white pine, Caliciopsis canker, in a 2014 survey with randomly selected eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) stands. The objective of this study was to further investigate the relationship between soil and stocking in eastern white pine forests of New England by stratifying sampling across soils and measuring stand density more systematically. A total of 62 eastern white pine stands were sampled during 2015–2016. Stands were stratified across soil groups and several prism plots were established at each site to measure stand density and determine stocking. Caliciopsis canker incidence in mature trees was greater in sites with drier or shallow soils compared to sites with loamy soils and in adequately stocked stands compared to understocked stands (p < 0.0001). Caliciopsis canker signs and symptoms were observed in all size classes. Live crown ratio, a measure of forest health, decreased with increasing Caliciopsis canker symptom severity. The fungal pathogen, Caliciopsis pinea Peck, was successfully isolated from cankers on trees growing in each soil group. Forest managers will need to consider damage caused by Caliciopsis canker related to stand factors such as soil and stocking when regenerating white pine stands. View Full-Text
Keywords: forest health monitoring; eastern white pine; tree density; tree disease forest health monitoring; eastern white pine; tree density; tree disease
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Munck, I.A.; Luther, T.; Wyka, S.; Keirstead, D.; McCracken, K.; Ostrofsky, W.; Searles, W.; Lombard, K.; Weimer, J.; Allen, B. Soil and Stocking Effects on Caliciopsis Canker of Pinus strobus L.. Forests 2016, 7, 269.

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