Next Article in Journal
Male Parent Identification of Triploid Rubber Trees (Hevea brasiliensis) and the Mechanism of 2n Gametes Formation
Next Article in Special Issue
Spatial Upscaling of Soil Respiration under a Complex Canopy Structure in an Old‐Growth Deciduous Forest, Central Japan
Previous Article in Journal
A Basin-Scale Estimation of Carbon Stocks of a Forest Ecosystem Characterized by Spatial Distribution and Contributive Features in the Liuxihe River Basin of Pearl River Delta
Previous Article in Special Issue
Optimization Forest Thinning Measures for Carbon Budget in a Mixed Pine-Oak Stand of the Qingling Mountains, China: A Case Study
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Forests 2016, 7(12), 309; doi:10.3390/f7120309

Heterotrophic Soil Respiration Affected by Compound Fertilizer Types in Red Pine (Pinus densiflora S. et Z.) Stands of Korea

Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, CRC-CARE, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5095, SA, Australia
Forest Practice Research Center, National Institute of Forest Science, Pocheon 11186, Korea
Global Centre for Environmental Remediation, University of Newcastle, Callaghan 2308, NSW, Australia
Department of Forest Resources, Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology, Jinju 52725, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Robert Jandl and Mirco Rodeghiero
Received: 1 October 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Respiration under Climate Changing)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2367 KB, uploaded 7 December 2016]   |  


This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of fertilizer application on heterotrophic soil respiration (Rh) in soil respiration (Rs) components in red pine stands. Two types of fertilizer (N3P4K1 = 113:150:37 kg·ha−1·year−1; P4K1 = 150:37 kg·ha−1·year−1) were applied manually on the forest floor for two years. Rs and Rh rates were monitored from April 2011 to March 2013. Mean Rs and Rh rates were not significantly affected by fertilizer applications. However, Rh in the second year following fertilizer application fell to 27% for N3P4K1 and 17% in P4K1 treatments, while there was an increase of 5% in the control treatments compared with the first fertilization year. The exponential relationships between Rs or Rh rates and the corresponding soil temperature were significant (Rh: R2 = 0.86–0.90; p < 0.05; Rs: R2 = 0.86–0.91; p < 0.05) in the fertilizer and control treatments. Q10 values (Rs increase per 10 °C increase in temperature) in Rs rates were lowest for the N3P4K1 treatment (3.47), followed by 3.62 for the P4K1 treatment and 3.60 in the control treatments, while Rh rates were similar among the treatments (3.59–3.64). The results demonstrate the importance of separating Rh rates from Rs rates following a compound fertilizer application. View Full-Text
Keywords: autotrophic respiration; carbon cycle; heterotrophic respiration; pine forest; soil CO2 efflux autotrophic respiration; carbon cycle; heterotrophic respiration; pine forest; soil CO2 efflux

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Jeong, J.; Bolan, N.; Kim, C. Heterotrophic Soil Respiration Affected by Compound Fertilizer Types in Red Pine (Pinus densiflora S. et Z.) Stands of Korea. Forests 2016, 7, 309.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Forests EISSN 1999-4907 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top