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Forests 2016, 7(12), 309; doi:10.3390/f7120309

Heterotrophic Soil Respiration Affected by Compound Fertilizer Types in Red Pine (Pinus densiflora S. et Z.) Stands of Korea

1
Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, CRC-CARE, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5095, SA, Australia
2
Forest Practice Research Center, National Institute of Forest Science, Pocheon 11186, Korea
3
Global Centre for Environmental Remediation, University of Newcastle, Callaghan 2308, NSW, Australia
4
Department of Forest Resources, Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology, Jinju 52725, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Robert Jandl and Mirco Rodeghiero
Received: 1 October 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Respiration under Climate Changing)
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Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of fertilizer application on heterotrophic soil respiration (Rh) in soil respiration (Rs) components in red pine stands. Two types of fertilizer (N3P4K1 = 113:150:37 kg·ha−1·year−1; P4K1 = 150:37 kg·ha−1·year−1) were applied manually on the forest floor for two years. Rs and Rh rates were monitored from April 2011 to March 2013. Mean Rs and Rh rates were not significantly affected by fertilizer applications. However, Rh in the second year following fertilizer application fell to 27% for N3P4K1 and 17% in P4K1 treatments, while there was an increase of 5% in the control treatments compared with the first fertilization year. The exponential relationships between Rs or Rh rates and the corresponding soil temperature were significant (Rh: R2 = 0.86–0.90; p < 0.05; Rs: R2 = 0.86–0.91; p < 0.05) in the fertilizer and control treatments. Q10 values (Rs increase per 10 °C increase in temperature) in Rs rates were lowest for the N3P4K1 treatment (3.47), followed by 3.62 for the P4K1 treatment and 3.60 in the control treatments, while Rh rates were similar among the treatments (3.59–3.64). The results demonstrate the importance of separating Rh rates from Rs rates following a compound fertilizer application. View Full-Text
Keywords: autotrophic respiration; carbon cycle; heterotrophic respiration; pine forest; soil CO2 efflux autotrophic respiration; carbon cycle; heterotrophic respiration; pine forest; soil CO2 efflux
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Jeong, J.; Bolan, N.; Kim, C. Heterotrophic Soil Respiration Affected by Compound Fertilizer Types in Red Pine (Pinus densiflora S. et Z.) Stands of Korea. Forests 2016, 7, 309.

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