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Forests 2016, 7(12), 301; doi:10.3390/f7120301

Male Parent Identification of Triploid Rubber Trees (Hevea brasiliensis) and the Mechanism of 2n Gametes Formation

1
National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, Key Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding in Forest Trees and Ornamental Plants, Ministry of Education, Beijing Laboratory of Urban and Rural Ecological Environment, College of Biological Sciences and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
2
Tropic Crops Science Research Institute of Yunnan Province, Jinghong 666100, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: John Mackay and Stephen P. difazio
Received: 27 October 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
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Abstract

Eight triploids were screened among offspring of the rubber tree clone GT1 × different clones by flow cytometry and chromosome counting. Twenty-five simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were screened to identify the origin of 2n gametes, to determine the male parents of these triploids, and to evaluate the mechanism of 2n gamete formation using band configurations and microsatellite DNA allele counting peak ratios (MAC-PR). The results showed that 2n gametes originated from the maternal rubber tree clone GT1, contributing the extra genome copy present in the triploids. It was confirmed that GT1 is able to produce a 2n megagametophyte spontaneously. Many male parents were shown to provide pollen for formation of triploid rubber trees, including clones RRIC 103, Yunyan 277-5, and three other clones. The second division restitution (SDR) was likely the main mechanism involved in formation of megagametophytes in GT1, as the rate of maternal heterozygosity restitution (HR) of all eight triploids varied from 27.78% to 75.00%, with a mean of 51.46%, and all 25 markers varied from 0% to 100%, with a mean of 51.69%. Elucidation of the origin and formation of 2n gametes will help optimize further sexual hybridization of polyploid rubber trees. View Full-Text
Keywords: rubber trees; triploids; SSR; 2n gamete; male parents rubber trees; triploids; SSR; 2n gamete; male parents
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Yao, P.-Q.; Li, G.-H.; Long, Q.-Y.; He, L.-G.; Kang, X.-Y. Male Parent Identification of Triploid Rubber Trees (Hevea brasiliensis) and the Mechanism of 2n Gametes Formation. Forests 2016, 7, 301.

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