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Arboricultural Introductions and Long-Term Changes for Invasive Woody Plants in Remnant Urban Forests
Biology and Forestry, The Pennsylvania State University–DuBois Campus, One College Place, DuBois, PA 15801, USA
Received: 2 July 2012; in revised form: 14 August 2012 / Accepted: 15 August 2012 / Published: 27 August 2012
Abstract: Long-term changes for invasive trees and shrubs presence in 16 floras encompassing four remnant urban forests of the coastal northeastern United States were examined for relationships with arboricultural introductions’ residence time and planting intensity, and state level recognition of regional invasive woody taxa. The number of invasive woody taxa significantly increased over the period 1818 to 2011 which encompasses the 16 floras. No significant Pearson product moment correlations were found for residence time as the year of introduction to arboriculture with presence in the 16 floras as well as with the 4 most recent floras. In contrast to residence time, planting intensity from the North American flora and two botanical gardens floras of the region from 1811 to 1818 and New York and Philadelphia parks floras from 1857 to 1903 did have significant correlations with the 16 floras and the 4 most recent floras. State level recognition of regional invasive woody taxa showed significant correlations with presence in all 16 floras as well as the 4 most recent floras. Monitoring for range expansion by the regional invasive woody taxa is essential because only 18% of the 98 taxa are present in all 4 of the most recent floras.
Keywords: remnant urban forest; invasive woody plants; arboricultural introductions; long-term; forest composition change; residence time; planting intensity; invasive recognition; urban floras; historical floras
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MDPI and ACS Style
Loeb, R.E. Arboricultural Introductions and Long-Term Changes for Invasive Woody Plants in Remnant Urban Forests. Forests 2012, 3, 745-763.
Loeb RE. Arboricultural Introductions and Long-Term Changes for Invasive Woody Plants in Remnant Urban Forests. Forests. 2012; 3(3):745-763.
Loeb, Robert E. 2012. "Arboricultural Introductions and Long-Term Changes for Invasive Woody Plants in Remnant Urban Forests." Forests 3, no. 3: 745-763.