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Forests, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2011), Pages 451-609

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Research

Open AccessArticle Community Forest Management and the Emergence of Multi-Scale Governance Institutions: Lessons for REDD+ Development from Mexico, Brazil and Bolivia
Forests 2011, 2(2), 451-473; doi:10.3390/f2020451
Received: 14 February 2011 / Accepted: 19 March 2011 / Published: 30 March 2011
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (344 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
At their most local, initiatives to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) will depend on rural people to manage forest resources. Although the design of frameworks, mechanisms and arrangements, to implement REDD programs have received significant attention, it is not yet clear
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At their most local, initiatives to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) will depend on rural people to manage forest resources. Although the design of frameworks, mechanisms and arrangements, to implement REDD programs have received significant attention, it is not yet clear how REDD+ will function on the ground or how the participation of local populations will be assured. Community forest management (CFM) could be an option under REDD+ depending on how it is negotiated, largely because of the expectation that CFM could reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation. Examining institutional factors in the emergence of successful CFM systems and local forest enterprises could provide valuable lessons for REDD planners. We examine cases of CFM development in Mexico, Brazil and Bolivia, to assess the role of multi-scaled governance institutions in their development. Comparing and contrasting advanced CFM systems to regions where it is still emerging, we will show how the establishment of a local organizational base for communal resource management is crucial. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Insect Pests in Future Forests: More Severe Problems?
Forests 2011, 2(2), 474-485; doi:10.3390/f2020474
Received: 11 February 2011 / Accepted: 24 March 2011 / Published: 4 April 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A common concern is that damage by insects will increase in forests as a consequence of climate change. We are assessing the likelihood of this predicted outcome by examining how other factors (especially changes in forest management practices) may interact with effects of
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A common concern is that damage by insects will increase in forests as a consequence of climate change. We are assessing the likelihood of this predicted outcome by examining how other factors (especially changes in forest management practices) may interact with effects of climate change. Here we describe the strategies for improving understanding of the causes of insect outbreaks and predicting the likelihood of insect-mediated damage increasing in the future. The adopted approaches are: (i) analyses of historical data, (ii) comparison of life history traits of outbreak and non-outbreak species, (iii) experiments along climatic gradients to quantify the strength of trophic interactions, and (iv) modeling. We conclude that collaboration by researchers from many disciplines is required to evaluate available data regarding the complex interactions involved, to identify knowledge gaps, and facilitate attempts to progress beyond speculation to more robust predictions concerning future levels of insect damage to forests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Forests)
Open AccessArticle Emerging Diseases in European Forest Ecosystems and Responses in Society
Forests 2011, 2(2), 486-504; doi:10.3390/f2020486
Received: 18 January 2011 / Revised: 3 March 2011 / Accepted: 3 March 2011 / Published: 4 April 2011
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (292 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New diseases in forest ecosystems have been reported at an increasing rate over the last century. Some reasons for this include the increased disturbance by humans to forest ecosystems, changed climatic conditions and intensified international trade. Although many of the contributing factors to
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New diseases in forest ecosystems have been reported at an increasing rate over the last century. Some reasons for this include the increased disturbance by humans to forest ecosystems, changed climatic conditions and intensified international trade. Although many of the contributing factors to the changed disease scenarios are anthropogenic, there has been a reluctance to control them by legislation, other forms of government authority or through public involvement. Some of the primary obstacles relate to problems in communicating biological understanding of concepts to the political sphere of society. Relevant response to new disease scenarios is very often associated with a proper understanding of intraspecific variation in the challenging pathogen. Other factors could be technical, based on a lack of understanding of possible countermeasures. There are also philosophical reasons, such as the view that forests are part of the natural ecosystems and should not be managed for natural disturbances such as disease outbreaks. Finally, some of the reasons are economic or political, such as a belief in free trade or reluctance to acknowledge supranational intervention control. Our possibilities to act in response to new disease threats are critically dependent on the timing of efforts. A common recognition of the nature of the problem and adapting vocabulary that describe relevant biological entities would help to facilitate timely and adequate responses in society to emerging diseases in forests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Forests)
Open AccessArticle Preparing for and Responding to Disturbance: Examples from the Forest Sector in Sweden and Canada
Forests 2011, 2(2), 505-524; doi:10.3390/f2020505
Received: 25 February 2011 / Revised: 18 March 2011 / Accepted: 22 March 2011 / Published: 4 April 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coping or adaptation following large-scale disturbance may depend on the political system and its preparedness and policy development in relation to risks. Adaptive or foresight planning is necessary in order to account and plan for potential risks that may increase or take place
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Coping or adaptation following large-scale disturbance may depend on the political system and its preparedness and policy development in relation to risks. Adaptive or foresight planning is necessary in order to account and plan for potential risks that may increase or take place concurrently with climate change. Forests constitute relevant examples of large-scale renewable resource systems that have been directly affected by recent environmental and social changes, and where different levels of management may influence each other. This article views disturbances in the forest sectors of Sweden and Canada, two large forest nations with comparable forestry experiences, in order to elucidate the preparedness and existing responses to multiple potential stresses. The article concludes that the two countries are exposed to stresses that indicate the importance of the governing and institutional system particularly with regard to multi-level systems including federal and EU levels. While economic change largely results in privatization of risk onto individual companies and their economic resources (in Canada coupled with a contestation of institutional systems and equity in these), storm and pest outbreaks in particular challenge institutional capacities at administrative levels, within the context provided by governance and tenure systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Forests)
Open AccessArticle REDD+ and the Indigenous Question: A Case Study from Ecuador
Forests 2011, 2(2), 525-549; doi:10.3390/f2020525
Received: 3 March 2011 / Revised: 12 April 2011 / Accepted: 13 April 2011 / Published: 13 April 2011
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (517 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One of the main issues regarding the implementation of REDD+ in Latin America has been the growing concern that such projects may infringe upon the rights and negatively affect the livelihoods of forest-dependent communities. Various indigenous and civil society organizations are ardently opposed
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One of the main issues regarding the implementation of REDD+ in Latin America has been the growing concern that such projects may infringe upon the rights and negatively affect the livelihoods of forest-dependent communities. Various indigenous and civil society organizations are ardently opposed to the initiative. Such is the case in Ecuador, where indigenous opposition to REDD+ represents a considerable obstacle in the creation of a national strategy since more than 60% of the country’s remaining forest cover is on indigenous land or under indigenous occupation. Thus one of the most critical challenges remaining for Ecuador will be the construction of a strong legal, financial, and institutional framework—one that the greater indigenous community might be willing to accept. Closer examination of this topic however, reveals just how difficult this may become. Lack of information, a recent political split between national authorities and the indigenous sector, and the dissimilar organizational capacity levels of indigenous communities make the feasibility of carrying out REDD+ projects on these lands extremely complex. However, the biggest obstacle may be ideological. Many indigenous groups view REDD+, with its possible emphasis on international markets and neoliberal mechanisms, as a continuation of the type of policies that have impeded their quest for sovereignty and self determination. As such, indigenous people are only willing to consider such projects if they clearly see preconditions in place that would safeguard their cultures, territories, and autonomy. Full article
Open AccessArticle Options for REDD+ Voluntary Certification to Ensure Net GHG Benefits, Poverty Alleviation, Sustainable Management of Forests and Biodiversity Conservation
Forests 2011, 2(2), 550-577; doi:10.3390/f2020550
Received: 9 February 2011 / Revised: 5 April 2011 / Accepted: 6 April 2011 / Published: 27 April 2011
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (598 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Our objective was to compare and evaluate the practical applicability to REDD+ of ten forest management, social, environmental and carbon standards that are currently active worldwide: Climate, Community and Biodiversity (CCB), CCB REDD+ Social and Environmental Standards (CCBA REDD+ S&E), CarbonFix Standard (CFS),
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Our objective was to compare and evaluate the practical applicability to REDD+ of ten forest management, social, environmental and carbon standards that are currently active worldwide: Climate, Community and Biodiversity (CCB), CCB REDD+ Social and Environmental Standards (CCBA REDD+ S&E), CarbonFix Standard (CFS), Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), Global Conservation Standard (GCS), ISO 14064:2006, Plan Vivo Standard, Programme for Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC), SOCIALCARBON Standard and the Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS). We developed a framework for evaluation of these standards relative to each other using four substantive criteria: (1) poverty alleviation, (2) sustainable management of forests (SMF), (3) biodiversity protection, (4) quantification and assessment of net greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits; and two procedural criteria: (5) monitoring and reporting, and (6) certification procedures. REDD programs require assessment of GHG benefits, monitoring, reporting and certification. Our analysis shows that only the Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) treats these three criteria comprehensively. No standard provides comprehensive coverage of the social and other environmental criteria. FSC, PEFC and CarbonFix provide comprehensive assessments of the sustainable forest management criterion. CCBA REDD+ S&E, CCB, and GCS provide comprehensive coverage of the biodiversity and poverty alleviation criteria. Experience in using these standards in pilot projects shows that projects are currently combining several standards as part of their strategy to improve their ability to attract investment, but costs of implementing several certification schemes is a concern. We conclude that voluntary certification provides useful practical experience that should feed into the design of the international REDD+ regime. Full article
Open AccessArticle Perspectives on the Potential Contribution of Swedish Forests to Renewable Energy Targets in Europe
Forests 2011, 2(2), 578-589; doi:10.3390/f2020578
Received: 13 February 2011 / Revised: 16 April 2011 / Accepted: 26 April 2011 / Published: 4 May 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (755 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Forest biomass is an important energy source in Sweden and some other European countries. In this paper we estimate the physically available (i.e., total potential) forest biomass for energy from annual forest harvesting (1970–2008) or in the total standing stock (2008)
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Forest biomass is an important energy source in Sweden and some other European countries. In this paper we estimate the physically available (i.e., total potential) forest biomass for energy from annual forest harvesting (1970–2008) or in the total standing stock (2008) in Sweden. To place Sweden’s forest resources into perspective we relate this to an estimated need for renewable energy sources in Europe. As Swedish forests supply a range of goods and ecosystem services, and as forest biomass is often bulky and expensive to procure, we also discuss issues that affect the amount of forest biomass that is actually available for energy production. We conclude that forests will contribute to Sweden’s renewable energy potential, but to a limited extent and expectations must be realistic and take techno-economical and environmental issues into consideration. To meet future energy needs in Sweden and Europe, a full suite of renewable energy resources will be needed, along with efficient conversion systems. A long-term sustainable supply of forest resources for energy and other uses can be obtained if future harvest levels are increased until they are equal to the annual growth increment. Delivering more than this would require increasing forest productivity through more intensive management. The new management regimes would have to begin now because it takes a long time to change annual production in temperate and boreal forests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Forests)
Open AccessArticle Application of the 3-PG Model for Gross Primary Productivity Estimation in Deciduous Broadleaf Forests: A Study Area in Japan
Forests 2011, 2(2), 590-609; doi:10.3390/f2020590
Received: 21 February 2011 / Revised: 28 March 2011 / Accepted: 7 April 2011 / Published: 6 May 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (971 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The physiological principles predicting growth (3-PG) model is generally used to estimate gross primary productivity (GPP) in forest plantations. All existing parameter values in the 3-PG model for GPP estimation have been set as the standard values for eucalyptus and pine plantations. We
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The physiological principles predicting growth (3-PG) model is generally used to estimate gross primary productivity (GPP) in forest plantations. All existing parameter values in the 3-PG model for GPP estimation have been set as the standard values for eucalyptus and pine plantations. We propose that the 3-PG model can be applied to deciduous broadleaf forests dominated by Betula platyphylla via appropriate parameterization of their structure and functions. The allometric relationships between stem biomass and stem diameter, and between foliage biomass and stem biomass, were determined for the biomass partitioning ratio. Additionally, a temperature modifier was considered appropriate because it affected canopy quantum efficiency. After parameterization, the model showed a good correlation between the estimated results and the data from experimental plots in central and northern Japan. At both sites, GPP peaked around August and was 0 during the winter, when the canopy is bare of leaves. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the most influential parameter relative to the output. GPP was sensitive to changes in canopy quantum efficiency and optimum temperature. Among the meteorological data used, solar radiation and temperature had great impacts on GPP, therefore, these parameters should be carefully considered to produce accurate results. Full article

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