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Forests, Volume 1, Issue 4 (December 2010), Pages 194-254

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Forest Governance, Decentralization and REDD+ in Latin America
Forests 2010, 1(4), 250-254; doi:10.3390/f1040250
Received: 15 November 2010 / Accepted: 10 December 2010 / Published: 16 December 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (37 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Forests and their governance have received increased attention in recent years. One factor that has stimulated this renewed interest is the appreciation of deforestation as a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. The emerging REDD+ mechanism (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest [...] Read more.
Forests and their governance have received increased attention in recent years. One factor that has stimulated this renewed interest is the appreciation of deforestation as a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. The emerging REDD+ mechanism (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation) under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is being designed with the goal of using financial incentives to enhance the role of forests in curbing climate change. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle Assessing a Template Matching Approach for Tree Height and Position Extraction from Lidar-Derived Canopy Height Models of Pinus Pinaster Stands
Forests 2010, 1(4), 194-208; doi:10.3390/f1040194
Received: 30 August 2010 / Revised: 16 October 2010 / Accepted: 20 October 2010 / Published: 26 October 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (722 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, an assessment of a method using a correlation filter over a lidar-derived digital canopy height model (CHM) is presented. The objective of the procedure is to obtain stem density, position, and height values, on a stand with the following [...] Read more.
In this paper, an assessment of a method using a correlation filter over a lidar-derived digital canopy height model (CHM) is presented. The objective of the procedure is to obtain stem density, position, and height values, on a stand with the following characteristics: ellipsoidal canopy shape (Pinus pinaster), even-aged and single-layer structure. The process consists of three steps: extracting a correlation map from CHM by applying a template whose size and shape resembles the canopy to be detected, applying a threshold mask to the correlation map to keep a subset of candidate-pixels, and then applying a local maximum filter to the remaining pixel groups. The method performs satisfactorily considering the experimental conditions. The mean tree extraction percentage is 65% with a coefficient of agreement of 0.4. The mean absolute error of height is ~0.5 m for all plots except one. It can be considered a valid approach for extracting tree density and height in regularly spaced stands (i.e., poplar plantations) which are fundamental for extracting related forest parameters such as volume and biomass. Full article
Open AccessArticle Influence of Climate on the Growth of Hybrid Poplar in Michigan
Forests 2010, 1(4), 209-229; doi:10.3390/f1040209
Received: 30 September 2010 / Revised: 22 October 2010 / Accepted: 9 November 2010 / Published: 15 November 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examined the influence of climate on cumulative and interannual growth patterns of 18 full-sib families of hybrid poplars (Populus × smithii Boivin) derived from different geographical locations (state counties) of natural stands of aspen parents (trembling aspen ( [...] Read more.
This study examined the influence of climate on cumulative and interannual growth patterns of 18 full-sib families of hybrid poplars (Populus × smithii Boivin) derived from different geographical locations (state counties) of natural stands of aspen parents (trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata Michx.)). The hybrids were subsequently planted in 1982 in southern mid-Michigan at Michigan State University (MSU) Sandhill Research Area. Cumulative measures of hybrid poplar productivity (diameter, height, basal area, and stem volume) in 2009 (28 years since plantation establishment) were related via correlation analysis to geographical distances and climatic variables (temperature and precipitation) between parental county locations and between parental locations and the plantation site. Tree-ring analysis methods (dendrochronology) were also used to quantify the influence of climate (i.e., mean temperature and total precipitation at monthly and 3-month seasonal scales) on interannual basal area growth rates of hybrid poplars. Analyses of cumulative measures of growth indicated a maternal effect: full-sib families had higher productivity if they had a maternal parent originating from a state county that was close to or had higher temperature (annual and summer) and summer precipitation than corresponding parameters of the planting site. Principal component analysis indicated that 17 of the 18 full-sib families shared a large amount of common growth variation. Dendrochronological analyses of interannual growth-climate relationships indicated that growth was mainly affected by the degree of late summer to fall moisture stress in both the current and previous growth season, and the degree of winter harshness. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Financing Sustainable Small-Scale Forestry: Lessons from Developing National Forest Financing Strategies in Latin America
Forests 2010, 1(4), 230-249; doi:10.3390/f1040230
Received: 27 October 2010 / Revised: 17 November 2010 / Accepted: 17 November 2010 / Published: 6 December 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (400 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The problems that hamper the financing of sustainable forest management (SFM) are manifold and complex. However, forestry is also facing unprecedented opportunities. The multiple functions and values of forests are increasingly recognized as part of the solution to pressing global issues (e.g., [...] Read more.
The problems that hamper the financing of sustainable forest management (SFM) are manifold and complex. However, forestry is also facing unprecedented opportunities. The multiple functions and values of forests are increasingly recognized as part of the solution to pressing global issues (e.g., climate change, energy scarcity, poverty, environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and raw material supply). Emerging initiatives to enhance forest carbon stocks and cut greenhouse gas emissions associated with forest clearing (known as REDD+), together with voluntary carbon markets, are offering additional funding options for SFM. Indigenous peoples, local communities and small scale farmers feature as key players in the discourse on implementing such initiatives. Based on the experience of countries developing national forest financing strategies and instruments, we suggest the following points be considered when financing such initiatives, particularly for small scale forestry: (1) Integrate financing of REDD+ and similar initiatives within broader national strategies for SFM financing; (2) Design REDD+ finance mechanisms that are ‘community ready’, i.e., tailored to local realities; (3) Consider existing livelihood strategies as the starting point; (4) Build on existing structures, but be mindful of their strengths and weaknesses; (5) Be strategic with your priority actions; and (6) Promote innovation, knowledge sharing and information exchange. Full article

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