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Correction published on 10 November 2016, see Materials 2016, 9(11), 911.

Open AccessReview
Materials 2016, 9(10), 802; doi:10.3390/ma9100802

3D Bioprinting Technologies for Hard Tissue and Organ Engineering

1
Department of Tissue Engineering, Center of 3D Printing & Organ Manufacturing, School of Fundamental Sciences, China Medical University (CMU), No. 77 Puhe Road, Shenyang North New Area, Shenyang 110122, China
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Center of Organ Manufacturing, Beijing 100084, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chee Kai Chua
Received: 31 July 2016 / Revised: 19 September 2016 / Accepted: 22 September 2016 / Published: 27 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing for Biomedical Engineering)
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Abstract

Hard tissues and organs, including the bones, teeth and cartilage, are the most extensively exploited and rapidly developed areas in regenerative medicine field. One prominent character of hard tissues and organs is that their extracellular matrices mineralize to withstand weight and pressure. Over the last two decades, a wide variety of 3D printing technologies have been adapted to hard tissue and organ engineering. These 3D printing technologies have been defined as 3D bioprinting. Especially for hard organ regeneration, a series of new theories, strategies and protocols have been proposed. Some of the technologies have been applied in medical therapies with some successes. Each of the technologies has pros and cons in hard tissue and organ engineering. In this review, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the historical available innovative 3D bioprinting technologies for used as special tools for hard tissue and organ engineering. View Full-Text
Keywords: hard tissues and organs; mechanical properties; composite materials; bones; teeth; cartilage hard tissues and organs; mechanical properties; composite materials; bones; teeth; cartilage
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Wang, X.; Ao, Q.; Tian, X.; Fan, J.; Wei, Y.; Hou, W.; Tong, H.; Bai, S. 3D Bioprinting Technologies for Hard Tissue and Organ Engineering. Materials 2016, 9, 802.

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