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Materials 2015, 8(10), 6909-6925; doi:10.3390/ma8105347

Global Warming Implications of the Use of By-Products and Recycled Materials in Western Australia’s Housing Sector

Sustainable Engineering Group, Curtin University, Western Australia 6845, Australia
Department of Civil Engineering, Curtin University, Western Australia 6845, Australia
The lead author contributed 70% and co-authors contributed equally for remaining 30% efforts in writing of the manuscript.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jorge de Brito
Received: 11 September 2015 / Revised: 25 September 2015 / Accepted: 7 October 2015 / Published: 12 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Utilisation of By-Product Materials in Concrete)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2041 KB, uploaded 12 October 2015]   |  


Western Australia’s housing sector is growing rapidly and around half a million houses are expected to be built by 2030, which not only will result in increased energy and resources demand but will have socio-economic impacts. Majority of Western Australians live in detached houses made of energy intensive clay bricks, which have a high potential to generate construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Therefore, there is a need to look into the use of alternative materials and construction methods. Due to Western Australia’s temperate climate, concrete could not only offer a comfortable living space but an operational energy saving also can be achieved. This paper has assessed the global warming implications of cast in-situ concrete sandwich wall system as an alternative to clay brick walls (CBW) with partial replacement of cement in concrete with by-products such as fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), natural aggregate (NA) with recycled crushed aggregate (RCA), natural sand (NS) with manufactured sand (MS) and, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foam core as a replacement to polystyrene core for construction of a typical 4 × 2 × 2 detached house in Perth. Life cycle management (LCM) approach has been used to determine global warming reduction benefits due to the use of available by-products and recycled materials in Western Australian houses. View Full-Text
Keywords: clay bricks; cast in-situ sandwich walls; fly ash; GGBFS; RCA; PET foam; GHG emissions clay bricks; cast in-situ sandwich walls; fly ash; GGBFS; RCA; PET foam; GHG emissions

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lawania, K.; Sarker, P.;  , W.B. Global Warming Implications of the Use of By-Products and Recycled Materials in Western Australia’s Housing Sector. Materials 2015, 8, 6909-6925.

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