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Materials 2014, 7(7), 4896-4929; doi:10.3390/ma7074896
Review

Plasma-Enabled Carbon Nanostructures for Early Diagnosis of Neurodegenerative Diseases

1,2
,
1,*  and 1,2,3
Received: 27 March 2014 / Revised: 18 June 2014 / Accepted: 20 June 2014 / Published: 25 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials for Biosensors)
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Abstract

Carbon nanostructures (CNs) are amongst the most promising biorecognition nanomaterials due to their unprecedented optical, electrical and structural properties. As such, CNs may be harnessed to tackle the detrimental public health and socio-economic adversities associated with neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). In particular, CNs may be tailored for a specific determination of biomarkers indicative of NDs. However, the realization of such a biosensor represents a significant technological challenge in the uniform fabrication of CNs with outstanding qualities in order to facilitate a highly-sensitive detection of biomarkers suspended in complex biological environments. Notably, the versatility of plasma-based techniques for the synthesis and surface modification of CNs may be embraced to optimize the biorecognition performance and capabilities. This review surveys the recent advances in CN-based biosensors, and highlights the benefits of plasma-processing techniques to enable, enhance, and tailor the performance and optimize the fabrication of CNs, towards the construction of biosensors with unparalleled performance for the early diagnosis of NDs, via a plethora of energy-efficient, environmentally-benign, and inexpensive approaches.
Keywords: low-temperature plasmas; carbon nanostructures; plasma nanoscience; graphene; nanotubes; nanosheets; nanowalls; biosensor; neurodegenerative diseases low-temperature plasmas; carbon nanostructures; plasma nanoscience; graphene; nanotubes; nanosheets; nanowalls; biosensor; neurodegenerative diseases
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Pineda, S.; Han, Z.J.; Ostrikov, K. Plasma-Enabled Carbon Nanostructures for Early Diagnosis of Neurodegenerative Diseases. Materials 2014, 7, 4896-4929.

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