Abstract: This research explains the melt spinning of bicomponent fibers, consisting of a conductive polypropylene (PP) core and a piezoelectric sheath (polyvinylidene fluoride). Previously analyzed piezoelectric capabilities of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) are to be exploited in sensor filaments. The PP compound contains a 10 wt % carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2 wt % sodium stearate (NaSt). The sodium stearate is added to lower the viscosity of the melt. The compound constitutes the fiber core that is conductive due to a percolation CNT network. The PVDF sheath’s piezoelectric effect is based on the formation of an all-trans conformation β phase, caused by draw-winding of the fibers. The core and sheath materials, as well as the bicomponent fibers, are characterized through different analytical methods. These include wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) to analyze crucial parameters for the development of a crystalline β phase. The distribution of CNTs in the polymer matrix, which affects the conductivity of the core, was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Thermal characterization is carried out by conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Optical microscopy is used to determine the fibers’ diameter regularity (core and sheath). The materials’ viscosity is determined by rheometry. Eventually, an LCR tester is used to determine the core’s specific resistance.
Keywords: poly(vinylidene fluoride); fiber; phase transition; bicomponent filament; poly(propylene); carbon nanotubes
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Glauß, B.; Steinmann, W.; Walter, S.; Beckers, M.; Seide, G.; Gries, T.; Roth, G. Spinnability and Characteristics of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)-based Bicomponent Fibers with a Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Modified Polypropylene Core for Piezoelectric Applications. Materials 2013, 6, 2642-2661.
Glauß B, Steinmann W, Walter S, Beckers M, Seide G, Gries T, Roth G. Spinnability and Characteristics of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)-based Bicomponent Fibers with a Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Modified Polypropylene Core for Piezoelectric Applications. Materials. 2013; 6(7):2642-2661.
Glauß, Benjamin; Steinmann, Wilhelm; Walter, Stephan; Beckers, Markus; Seide, Gunnar; Gries, Thomas; Roth, Georg. 2013. "Spinnability and Characteristics of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)-based Bicomponent Fibers with a Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Modified Polypropylene Core for Piezoelectric Applications." Materials 6, no. 7: 2642-2661.