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Materials 2013, 6(4), 1506-1519; doi:10.3390/ma6041506
Article

Green Synthesis, Molecular Characterization and Associative Behavior of Some Gemini Surfactants without a Spacer Group

1,* , 1
, 2, 3
 and 2,3
Received: 1 February 2013; in revised form: 16 March 2013 / Accepted: 1 April 2013 / Published: 12 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cosmetics)
Download PDF [377 KB, uploaded 12 April 2013]
Abstract: A series of new gemini surfactants without a spacer group, disodium 2,3-dialkyl-1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylates, were synthesized in a green chemistry context minimizing the use of organic solvents and applying microwaves (MW) when activation energy was required. Once the desired architecture was confirmed by means of the nuclear magnetic resonance technique (1H-NMR, 1H-1H COSY) for all the studied surfactants, the critical micellization concentration was determined by conductance measurements. The diffusion coefficient of micelles formed by the four compounds was characterized using pulsed field gradient (PFG)-NMR. Diffusion coefficients were found to be dependent on the concentration and on the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain. The absence of the spacer group, peculiar to this new series of gemini surfactants, may confer relatively low flexibility to the molecules, with potential implications on the interfacial properties, namely on micellization. These gemini surfactants might have interesting applications in the preparation of composite materials, in nanotechnology, in gene transfection and mainly, due to the low CMCs, as new interesting ingredients of cosmetics and toiletries.
Keywords: gemini surfactants; green synthesis; microwave; cosmetic detergents; critical micelle concentration; PFG-NMR; diffusion coefficient gemini surfactants; green synthesis; microwave; cosmetic detergents; critical micelle concentration; PFG-NMR; diffusion coefficient
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Villa, C.; Baldassari, S.; Martino, D.F.C.; Spinella, A.; Caponetti, E. Green Synthesis, Molecular Characterization and Associative Behavior of Some Gemini Surfactants without a Spacer Group. Materials 2013, 6, 1506-1519.

AMA Style

Villa C, Baldassari S, Martino DFC, Spinella A, Caponetti E. Green Synthesis, Molecular Characterization and Associative Behavior of Some Gemini Surfactants without a Spacer Group. Materials. 2013; 6(4):1506-1519.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Villa, Carla; Baldassari, Sara; Martino, Delia F.C.; Spinella, Alberto; Caponetti, Eugenio. 2013. "Green Synthesis, Molecular Characterization and Associative Behavior of Some Gemini Surfactants without a Spacer Group." Materials 6, no. 4: 1506-1519.


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