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Covalently Bonded Chitosan on Graphene Oxide via Redox Reaction
Posgrado en Ciencia de Materiales, Laboratorio de Investigación y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados (LIDMA), Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Km.12 de la carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, San Cayetano 50200, Mexico
División de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Instituto Tecnológico de Querétaro, Av. Tecnológico s/n Esq. M. Escobedo, Querétaro 76000, Mexico
Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, AP 1-1010, Querétaro 76000, Mexico
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 January 2013; in revised form: 7 February 2013 / Accepted: 26 February 2013 / Published: 7 March 2013
Abstract: Carbon nanostructures have played an important role in creating a new field of materials based on carbon. Chemical modification of carbon nanostructures through grafting has been a successful step to improve dispersion and compatibility in solvents, with biomolecules and polymers to form nanocomposites. In this sense carbohydrates such as chitosan are extremely valuable because their functional groups play an important role in diversifying the applications of carbon nanomaterials. This paper reports the covalent attachment of chitosan onto graphene oxide, taking advantage of this carbohydrate at the nanometric level. Grafting is an innovative route to modify properties of graphene, a two-dimensional nanometric arrangement, which is one of the most novel and promising nanostructures. Chitosan grafting was achieved by redox reaction using different temperature conditions that impact on the morphology and features of graphene oxide sheets. Transmission Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared, Raman and Energy Dispersive spectroscopies were used to study the surface of chitosan-grafted-graphene oxide. Results show a successful modification indicated by the functional groups found in the grafted material. Dispersions of chitosan-grafted-graphene oxide samples in water and hexane revealed different behavior due to the chemical groups attached to the graphene oxide sheet.
Keywords: chitosan; grafting; graphene oxide; carbon nanostructure; redox reaction
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Bustos-Ramírez, K.; Martínez-Hernández, A.L.; Martínez-Barrera, G.; Icaza, M.D.; Castaño, V.M.; Velasco-Santos, C. Covalently Bonded Chitosan on Graphene Oxide via Redox Reaction. Materials 2013, 6, 911-926.
Bustos-Ramírez K, Martínez-Hernández AL, Martínez-Barrera G, Icaza MD, Castaño VM, Velasco-Santos C. Covalently Bonded Chitosan on Graphene Oxide via Redox Reaction. Materials. 2013; 6(3):911-926.
Bustos-Ramírez, Karina; Martínez-Hernández, Ana L.; Martínez-Barrera, Gonzalo; Icaza, Miguel D.; Castaño, Víctor M.; Velasco-Santos, Carlos. 2013. "Covalently Bonded Chitosan on Graphene Oxide via Redox Reaction." Materials 6, no. 3: 911-926.