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Crystallization of Electrodeposited Germanium Thin Film on Silicon (100)
Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Skudai 81310, Malaysia
Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Shah Alam 40450, Malaysia
Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Semarak, Kuala Lumpur 54100, Malaysia
MIMOS Berhad, Technology Park Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 August 2013; in revised form: 21 October 2013 / Accepted: 28 October 2013 / Published: 6 November 2013
Abstract: We report the crystallization of electrodeposited germanium (Ge) thin films on n-silicon (Si) (100) by rapid melting process. The electrodeposition was carried out in germanium (IV) chloride: propylene glycol (GeCl4:C3H8O2) electrolyte with constant current of 50 mA for 30 min. The measured Raman spectra and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) images show that the as-deposited Ge thin film was amorphous. The crystallization of deposited Ge was achieved by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 980 °C for 1 s. The EBSD images confirm that the orientations of the annealed Ge are similar to that of the Si substrate. The highly intense peak of Raman spectra at 300 cm−1 corresponding to Ge-Ge vibration mode was observed, indicating good crystal quality of Ge. An additional sub peak near to 390 cm−1 corresponding to the Si-Ge vibration mode was also observed, indicating the Ge-Si mixing at Ge/Si interface. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) reveals that the intermixing depth was around 60 nm. The calculated Si fraction from Raman spectra was found to be in good agreement with the value estimated from Ge-Si equilibrium phase diagram. The proposed technique is expected to be an effective way to crystallize Ge films for various device applications as well as to create strain at the Ge-Si interface for enhancement of mobility.
Keywords: germanium; silicon; electrochemical deposition; rapid melting
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MDPI and ACS Style
Abidin, M.S.Z.; Matsumura, R.; Anisuzzaman, M.; Park, J.-H.; Muta, S.; Mahmood, M.R.; Sadoh, T.; Hashim, A.M. Crystallization of Electrodeposited Germanium Thin Film on Silicon (100). Materials 2013, 6, 5047-5057.
Abidin MSZ, Matsumura R, Anisuzzaman M, Park J-H, Muta S, Mahmood MR, Sadoh T, Hashim AM. Crystallization of Electrodeposited Germanium Thin Film on Silicon (100). Materials. 2013; 6(11):5047-5057.
Abidin, Mastura S.Z.; Matsumura, Ryo; Anisuzzaman, Mohammad; Park, Jong-Hyeok; Muta, Shunpei; Mahmood, Mohamad R.; Sadoh, Taizoh; Hashim, Abdul M. 2013. "Crystallization of Electrodeposited Germanium Thin Film on Silicon (100)." Materials 6, no. 11: 5047-5057.