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Materials 2012, 5(5), 937-965; doi:10.3390/ma5050937

In-Line Phase-Contrast X-ray Imaging and Tomography for Materials Science

* ,
CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Private Bag 33, Clayton, VIC 3169, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 April 2012 / Revised: 11 May 2012 / Accepted: 16 May 2012 / Published: 24 May 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue X-ray Imaging in Materials Science)
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X-ray phase-contrast imaging and tomography make use of the refraction of X-rays by the sample in image formation. This provides considerable additional information in the image compared to conventional X-ray imaging methods, which rely solely on X-ray absorption by the sample. Phase-contrast imaging highlights edges and internal boundaries of a sample and is thus complementary to absorption contrast, which is more sensitive to the bulk of the sample. Phase-contrast can also be used to image low-density materials, which do not absorb X-rays sufficiently to form a conventional X-ray image. In the context of materials science, X-ray phase-contrast imaging and tomography have particular value in the 2D and 3D characterization of low-density materials, the detection of cracks and voids and the analysis of composites and multiphase materials where the different components have similar X-ray attenuation coefficients. Here we review the use of phase-contrast imaging and tomography for a wide variety of materials science characterization problems using both synchrotron and laboratory sources and further demonstrate the particular benefits of phase contrast in the laboratory setting with a series of case studies.
Keywords: phase-contrast; micro-tomography; X-ray imaging; radiography; X-ray microscopy phase-contrast; micro-tomography; X-ray imaging; radiography; X-ray microscopy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Mayo, S.C.; Stevenson, A.W.; Wilkins, S.W. In-Line Phase-Contrast X-ray Imaging and Tomography for Materials Science. Materials 2012, 5, 937-965.

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