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Materials 2011, 4(11), 1941-1955; doi:10.3390/ma4111941

Advances in High-Field BOLD fMRI

1,2,*  and 1,3
1 Radboud University Nijmegen, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen 6525 HP, The Netherlands 2 Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen 45141, Germany 3 Department of Medicine, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96785, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 August 2011 / Revised: 7 October 2011 / Accepted: 19 October 2011 / Published: 2 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Field Magnetic Resonance Methods and Materials)
Download PDF [840 KB, uploaded 2 November 2011]


This review article examines the current state of BOLD fMRI at a high magnetic field strength of 7 Tesla. The following aspects are covered: a short description of the BOLD contrast, spatial and temporal resolution, BOLD sensitivity, localization and spatial specificity, technical challenges as well as an outlook on future developments are given. It is shown that the main technical challenges of performing BOLD fMRI at high magnetic field strengths—namely development of array coils, imaging sequences and parallel imaging reconstruction—have been solved successfully. The combination of these developments has lead to the availability of high-resolution BOLD fMRI protocols that are able to cover the whole brain with a repetition time (TR) shorter than 3 s. The structural information available from these high-resolution fMRI images itself is already very detailed, which helps to co-localize structure and function. Potential future applications include whole-brain connectivity analysis on a laminar resolution and single subject examinations.
Keywords: BOLD fMRI; high field; 7 Tesla; BOLD response; 2D EPI; 3D EPI BOLD fMRI; high field; 7 Tesla; BOLD response; 2D EPI; 3D EPI
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Barth, M.; Poser, B.A. Advances in High-Field BOLD fMRI. Materials 2011, 4, 1941-1955.

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