Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Gene Expression, Bacteria Viability and Survivability Following Spray Drying of Mycobacterium smegmatis
Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 58 Oxford Street, ESL 406, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 29 Oxford Street, 322 Pierce Hall, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
Wyss Institute of Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University HIM, 10th Floor,4 Blackfan Circle, Boston, MA 02115, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 January 2010; in revised form: 23 March 2010 / Accepted: 8 April 2010 / Published: 13 April 2010
Abstract: We find that Mycobacterium smegmatis survives spray drying and retains cell viability in accelerated temperature stress (40 °C) conditions with a success rate that increases with increasing thermal, osmotic, and nutrient-restriction stresses applied to the mycobacterium prior to spray drying. M.smegmatis that are spray dried during log growth phase, where they suffer little or no nutrient-reduction stress, survive for less than 7 days in the dry powder state at accelerated temperature stress conditions, whereas M. smegmatis that are spray dried during stationary phase, where cells do suffer nutrient reduction, survive for up to 14 days. M. smegmatis that are spray dried from stationary phase, subjected to accelerated temperature stress conditions, regrown to stationary phase, spray dried again, and resubmitted to this same process four consecutive times, display, on the fourth spray drying iteration, an approximate ten-fold increase in stability during accelerated temperature stress testing, surviving up to 105 days. Microarray tests revealed significant differences in genetic expression of M. smegmatis between log phase and stationary phase conditions, between naïve (non spray-dried) and multiply cycled dried M. smegmatis (in log and stationary phase), and between M. smegmatis in the dry powder state following a single spray drying operation and after four consecutive spray drying operations. These differences, and other phenotypical differences, point to the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway as a probable pathway contributing to bacteria survival in the spray-dried state and suggests strategies for spray drying that may lead to significantly greater room-temperature stability of mycobacteria, including mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), the current TB vaccine.
Keywords: mycobacterium; gene expression; thermostability
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Lauten, E.H.; Pulliam, B.L.; DeRousse, J.; Bhatta, D.; Edwards, D.A. Gene Expression, Bacteria Viability and Survivability Following Spray Drying of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Materials 2010, 3, 2684-2724.
Lauten EH, Pulliam BL, DeRousse J, Bhatta D, Edwards DA. Gene Expression, Bacteria Viability and Survivability Following Spray Drying of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Materials. 2010; 3(4):2684-2724.
Lauten, Elizabeth Hunter; Pulliam, Brian L.; DeRousse, Jessica; Bhatta, Deen; Edwards, David A. 2010. "Gene Expression, Bacteria Viability and Survivability Following Spray Drying of Mycobacterium smegmatis." Materials 3, no. 4: 2684-2724.