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Toxicity of Transition Metal Oxide Nanoparticles: Recent Insights from in vitro Studies
Department of Biological Sciences and the Missouri S&T cDNA Resource Center, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 400 W. 11th Street, 105 Schrenk Hall, Rolla, MO 65409, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 October 2010; Accepted: 22 October 2010 / Published: 25 October 2010
Abstract: Nanotechnology has evolved to play a prominent role in our economy. Increased use of nanomaterials poses potential human health risk. It is therefore critical to understand the nature and origin of the toxicity imposed by nanomaterials (nanotoxicity). In this article we review the toxicity of the transition metal oxides in the 4th period that are widely used in industry and biotechnology. Nanoparticle toxicity is compellingly related to oxidative stress and alteration of calcium homeostasis, gene expression, pro-inflammatory responses, and cellular signaling events. The precise physicochemical properties that dictate the toxicity of nanoparticles have yet to be defined, but may include element-specific surface catalytic activity (e.g., metallic, semiconducting properties), nanoparticle uptake, or nanoparticle dissolution. These in vitro studies substantially advance our understanding in mechanisms of toxicity, which may lead to safer design of nanomaterials.
Keywords: nanoparticle; toxicity; metal oxide; oxidative stress; calcium homeostasis; signal transduction
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MDPI and ACS Style
Huang, Y.-W.; Wu, C.-H.; Aronstam, R.S. Toxicity of Transition Metal Oxide Nanoparticles: Recent Insights from in vitro Studies. Materials 2010, 3, 4842-4859.
Huang Y-W, Wu C-H, Aronstam RS. Toxicity of Transition Metal Oxide Nanoparticles: Recent Insights from in vitro Studies. Materials. 2010; 3(10):4842-4859.
Huang, Yue-Wern; Wu, Chi-heng; Aronstam, Robert S. 2010. "Toxicity of Transition Metal Oxide Nanoparticles: Recent Insights from in vitro Studies." Materials 3, no. 10: 4842-4859.