Materials 2010, 3(1), 48-63; doi:10.3390/ma3010048
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Novel Bioactive Titanate Layers Formed on Ti Metal and Its Alloys by Chemical Treatments

Received: 30 November 2009; in revised form: 16 December 2009 / Accepted: 22 December 2009 / Published: 25 December 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Sodium titanate formed on Ti metal by NaOH and heat treatments induces apatite formation on its surface in a body environment and bonds to living bone. These treatments have been applied to porous Ti metal in artificial hip joints, and have been used clinically in Japan since 2007. Calcium titanate formed on Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta alloy by NaOH, CaCl2, heat, and water treatments induces apatite formation on its surface in a body environment. Titanium oxide formed on porous Ti metal by NaOH, HCl, and heat treatments exhibits osteoinductivity as well as osteoconductivity. This is now under clinical tests for application to a spinal fusion device.
Keywords: bioactive; titanate; osteoinduction; osteoconduction; Ti metal; Ti-based alloy; artificial joint; spinal fusion device; apatite
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kokubo, T.; Yamaguchi, S. Novel Bioactive Titanate Layers Formed on Ti Metal and Its Alloys by Chemical Treatments. Materials 2010, 3, 48-63.

AMA Style

Kokubo T, Yamaguchi S. Novel Bioactive Titanate Layers Formed on Ti Metal and Its Alloys by Chemical Treatments. Materials. 2010; 3(1):48-63.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kokubo, Tadashi; Yamaguchi, Seiji. 2010. "Novel Bioactive Titanate Layers Formed on Ti Metal and Its Alloys by Chemical Treatments." Materials 3, no. 1: 48-63.

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