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Materials 2010, 3(1), 26-47; doi:10.3390/ma3010026

Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials

Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, 60 Musk Avenue, Kelvin Grove, QLD 4059, Australia
NIBEC, University of Ulster, Jordanstown Campus, Co. Antrim, NI, BT37 0QB, Northern Ireland, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2009 / Revised: 21 December 2009 / Accepted: 25 December 2009 / Published: 25 December 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [924 KB, uploaded 25 December 2009]   |  


Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.
Keywords: graded; gradient; porosity; pore size; bone; biomaterials graded; gradient; porosity; pore size; bone; biomaterials
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Miao, X.; Sun, D. Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials. Materials 2010, 3, 26-47.

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