Materials 2009, 2(3), 790-832; doi:10.3390/ma2030790
Review

Metallic Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

1 Center for Geo-Environmental Science, Faculty of Engineering and Resource Science, Akita University, 1-1 Tegata Gakuen-machi, Akita 010-8502, Japan 2 The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 June 2009; in revised form: 20 July 2009 / Accepted: 21 July 2009 / Published: 23 July 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Materials)
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Abstract: Bone tissue engineering is an emerging interdisciplinary field in Science, combining expertise in medicine, material science and biomechanics. Hard tissue engineering research is focused mainly in two areas, osteo and dental clinical applications. There is a lot of exciting research being performed worldwide in developing novel scaffolds for tissue engineering. Although, nowadays the majority of the research effort is in the development of scaffolds for non-load bearing applications, primarily using soft natural or synthetic polymers or natural scaffolds for soft tissue engineering; metallic scaffolds aimed for hard tissue engineering have been also the subject of in vitro and in vivo research and industrial development. In this article, descriptions of the different manufacturing technologies available to fabricate metallic scaffolds and a compilation of the reported biocompatibility of the currently developed metallic scaffolds have been performed. Finally, we highlight the positive aspects and the remaining problems that will drive future research in metallic constructs aimed for the reconstruction and repair of bone.
Keywords: metallic bone scaffolds; biocompatible metals; load-bearing porous structures; 3-D metallic constructs; bone tissue engineering

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MDPI and ACS Style

Alvarez, K.; Nakajima, H. Metallic Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration. Materials 2009, 2, 790-832.

AMA Style

Alvarez K, Nakajima H. Metallic Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration. Materials. 2009; 2(3):790-832.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alvarez, Kelly; Nakajima, Hideo. 2009. "Metallic Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration." Materials 2, no. 3: 790-832.

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