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Materials 2017, 10(6), 606; doi:10.3390/ma10060606

Graphene Nanosheets to Improve Physico-Mechanical Properties of Bioactive Calcium Silicate Cements

1
Faculty of Dentistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119083, Singapore
2
Faculty of Dentistry, University of Passo Fundo, Passo Fundo 99052-900, Brazil
3
School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju-si 54896, Korea
4
Centre for Advanced 2D Materials and Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117546, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Barbara Zavan
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioapplications of Graphene Composites)
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Abstract

Bioactive calcium silicate cements are widely used to induce mineralization, to cement prosthetic parts, in the management of tooth perforations, and other areas. Nonetheless, they can present clinical disadvantages, such as long setting time and modest physico-mechanical properties. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of graphene nanosheets (GNS) to improve two bioactive cements. GNS were obtained via reduction of graphite oxide. GNS were mixed (1, 3, 5, and 7 wt %) with Biodentine (BIO) and Endocem Zr (ECZ), and the effects on setting time, hardness, push-out strength, pH profile, cell proliferation, and mineralization were evaluated. Statistics were performed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (α = 0.05). GNS has not interfered in the composition of the set cements as confirmed by Raman, FT-IR and XRD. GNS (1 and 3 wt %) shortened the setting time, increased hardness of both materials but decreased significantly the push-out strength of ECZ. pH was not affected but 1 wt % and 7 wt % to ECZ and 5 wt % to BIO increased the mineralization compared to the controls. In summary, GNS may be an alternative to improve the physico-mechanical properties and bioactivity of cements. Nonetheless, the use of GNS may not be advised for all materials when effective bonding is a concern. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene; Biodentine; dental pulp stem cells; push-out bond strength; mineral trioxide aggregate graphene; Biodentine; dental pulp stem cells; push-out bond strength; mineral trioxide aggregate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dubey, N.; Rajan, S.S.; Bello, Y.D.; Min, K.-S.; Rosa, V. Graphene Nanosheets to Improve Physico-Mechanical Properties of Bioactive Calcium Silicate Cements. Materials 2017, 10, 606.

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