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Special Issue "Bioapplications of Graphene Composites"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Barbara Zavan

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Viale Giuseppe Colombo, 3, Padova 35131, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: tissue enginering; regenerative medicine; stem cell biology; tissue homeostasis and repair; scaffolds; mesenchymal stem cells

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Development of graphene-based materials in the form of nanoparticles for cell imaging or biosensoring applications, or in scaffolds for regenerative medicine in tissue regeneration, is increasing exponentially.

The biomedical application of graphene is indeed a relatively new area with a high potential. Graphene oxide (GO) is an efficient nanocarrier for drug/gene delivery, an efficient  biological sensing and imaging tool, shows antibacterial activity, and is biocompatible for cell culture and tissue engineering.

The tremendous recent interest in the use of graphene-based nanomaterials for tissue engineering applications clearly indicating that graphene and its related substrates are excellent platforms for promoting the adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of various stem cells, such as human Mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), human Neuronal Stem Cells (hNSCs), and induced Pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).

All these properties make this material potentially suitable for a wide range of applications, such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, drug delivery, and stem cells applications.

Prof. Barbara Zavan
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Tissue engineering
  • Regenerative medicine
  • Mesenchymal Stem cell
  • Drug delivery
  • Gene delivery
  • Cell imaging
  • Biosensor
  • DNA sequencing
  • Biomaterials
  • Bone

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Bacteria Response to Antibiotics Using Nanoporous Membrane and Graphene Quantum Dot (GQDs)-Based Electrochemical Biosensors
Materials 2017, 10(6), 603; doi:10.3390/ma10060603
Received: 23 April 2017 / Revised: 22 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2963 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The wide abuse of antibiotics has accelerated bacterial multiresistance, which means there is a need to develop tools for rapid detection and characterization of bacterial response to antibiotics in the management of infections. In the study, an electrochemical biosensor based on nanoporous alumina
[...] Read more.
The wide abuse of antibiotics has accelerated bacterial multiresistance, which means there is a need to develop tools for rapid detection and characterization of bacterial response to antibiotics in the management of infections. In the study, an electrochemical biosensor based on nanoporous alumina membrane and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) was developed for bacterial response to antibiotics detection. Anti-Salmonella antibody was conjugated with amino-modified GQDs by glutaraldehyde and immobilized on silanized nanoporous alumina membranes for Salmonella bacteria capture. The impedance signals across nanoporous membranes could monitor the capture of bacteria on nanoporous membranes as well as bacterial response to antibiotics. This nanoporous membrane and GQD-based electrochemical biosensor achieved rapid detection of bacterial response to antibiotics within 30 min, and the detection limit could reach the pM level. It was capable of investigating the response of bacteria exposed to antibiotics much more rapidly and conveniently than traditional tools. The capability of studying the dynamic effects of antibiotics on bacteria has potential applications in the field of monitoring disease therapy, detecting comprehensive food safety hazards and even life in hostile environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioapplications of Graphene Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Graphene Nanosheets to Improve Physico-Mechanical Properties of Bioactive Calcium Silicate Cements
Materials 2017, 10(6), 606; doi:10.3390/ma10060606
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
PDF Full-text (3272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Bioactive calcium silicate cements are widely used to induce mineralization, to cement prosthetic parts, in the management of tooth perforations, and other areas. Nonetheless, they can present clinical disadvantages, such as long setting time and modest physico-mechanical properties. The objective of this work
[...] Read more.
Bioactive calcium silicate cements are widely used to induce mineralization, to cement prosthetic parts, in the management of tooth perforations, and other areas. Nonetheless, they can present clinical disadvantages, such as long setting time and modest physico-mechanical properties. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of graphene nanosheets (GNS) to improve two bioactive cements. GNS were obtained via reduction of graphite oxide. GNS were mixed (1, 3, 5, and 7 wt %) with Biodentine (BIO) and Endocem Zr (ECZ), and the effects on setting time, hardness, push-out strength, pH profile, cell proliferation, and mineralization were evaluated. Statistics were performed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (α = 0.05). GNS has not interfered in the composition of the set cements as confirmed by Raman, FT-IR and XRD. GNS (1 and 3 wt %) shortened the setting time, increased hardness of both materials but decreased significantly the push-out strength of ECZ. pH was not affected but 1 wt % and 7 wt % to ECZ and 5 wt % to BIO increased the mineralization compared to the controls. In summary, GNS may be an alternative to improve the physico-mechanical properties and bioactivity of cements. Nonetheless, the use of GNS may not be advised for all materials when effective bonding is a concern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioapplications of Graphene Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Linear Graphene Nanocomposite Synthesis and an Analytical Application for the Amino Acid Detection of Camellia nitidissima Chi Seeds
Materials 2017, 10(4), 443; doi:10.3390/ma10040443
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 16 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 24 April 2017
PDF Full-text (2563 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Husk derived amino modified linear graphene nanocomposites (aLGN) with a diameter range of 80–300 nm and a length range of 100–300 μm were prepared by a modified Hummers method, ammonia treatment, NaBH4 reduction and phenylalanine induced assembly processes, etc. The resulting composites
[...] Read more.
Husk derived amino modified linear graphene nanocomposites (aLGN) with a diameter range of 80–300 nm and a length range of 100–300 μm were prepared by a modified Hummers method, ammonia treatment, NaBH4 reduction and phenylalanine induced assembly processes, etc. The resulting composites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), biological microscope (BM), and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), etc. Investigations found that the aLGN can serve as the novel coating of stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) technology. By combing this technology with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the combined SBSE/GC-MS technology with an aLGN coating can detect seventeen kinds of amino acids of Camellia nitidissima Chi seeds, including Ala, Gly, Thr, Ser, Val, Leu, Ile, Cys, Pro, Met, Asp, Phe, Glu, Lys, Tyr, His, and Arg. Compared to a conventional polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coating, an aLGN coating for SBSE exhibited a better thermal desorption performance, better analytes fragmentation depressing efficiencies, higher peak intensities, and superior amino acid discrimination, leading to a practicable and highly distinguishable method for the variable amino acid detection of Camellia nitidissima Chi seeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioapplications of Graphene Composites)
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Open AccessCommunication Tracing the Bioavailability of Three-Dimensional Graphene Foam in Biological Tissues
Materials 2017, 10(4), 336; doi:10.3390/ma10040336
Received: 1 February 2017 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 21 March 2017 / Published: 24 March 2017
PDF Full-text (3483 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Graphene-based materials with a three-dimensional (3D) framework have been investigated for a variety of biomedical applications because of their 3D morphology, excellent physiochemical properties, volume stability, and their controllable degradation rate. Current knowledge on the toxicological implications and bioavailability of graphene foam (GF)
[...] Read more.
Graphene-based materials with a three-dimensional (3D) framework have been investigated for a variety of biomedical applications because of their 3D morphology, excellent physiochemical properties, volume stability, and their controllable degradation rate. Current knowledge on the toxicological implications and bioavailability of graphene foam (GF) has major uncertainties surrounding the fate and behavior of GF in exposed environments. Bioavailability, uptake, and partitioning could have potential effects on the behavior of GF in living organisms, which has not yet been investigated. Here, we report a pilot toxicology study on 3D GF in common carps. Our results showed that GF did not show any noticeable toxicity in common carps, and the antioxidant enzymatic activities, biochemical and blood parameters persisted within the standard series. Further histological imaging revealed that GF remained within liver and kidney macrophages for 7 days without showing obvious toxicity. An in vivo study also demonstrated a direct interaction between GF and biological systems, verifying its eco-friendly nature and high biocompatibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioapplications of Graphene Composites)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Thermomechanical Properties of Polylactic Acid-Graphene Composites: A State-of-the-Art Review for Biomedical Applications
Materials 2017, 10(7), 748; doi:10.3390/ma10070748
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (24410 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to its biodegradable and bioabsorbable characteristics polylactic acid (PLA) has attracted considerable attention for numerous biomedical applications. Moreover, a number of tissue engineering problems for function restoration of impaired tissues have been addressed by using PLA and its copolymers due to their
[...] Read more.
Due to its biodegradable and bioabsorbable characteristics polylactic acid (PLA) has attracted considerable attention for numerous biomedical applications. Moreover, a number of tissue engineering problems for function restoration of impaired tissues have been addressed by using PLA and its copolymers due to their biocompatibility and distinctive mechanical properties. Recent studies on various stereocomplex formation between enantiomeric PLA, poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(d-lactide) (PDLA) indicated that stereocomplexation enhances the mechanical properties as well as the thermal- and hydrolysis-resistance of PLA polymers. On the other hand, biomedical application of graphene is a relatively new front with significant potential. Many recent reports have indicated that understanding of graphene-cell (or tissue, organ) interactions; particularly the cellular uptake mechanisms are still challenging. Therefore, use of graphene or graphene oxide properly embedded in suitable PLA matrices can positively impact and accelerate the growth, differentiation, and proliferation of stem cells, conceivably minimizing concerns over cytotoxicity of graphene. As such, PLA-graphene composites hold great promise in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and in other biomedical fields. However, since PLA is classified as a hard bio-polyester prone to hydrolysis, understanding and engineering of thermo-mechanical properties of PLA-graphene composites are very crucial for such cutting-edge applications. Hence, this review aims to present an overview of current advances in the preparation and applications of PLA-graphene composites and their properties with focus on various biomedical uses such as scaffolds, drug delivery, cancer therapy, and biological imaging, together with a brief discussion on the challenges and perspectives for future research in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioapplications of Graphene Composites)
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