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Materials 2017, 10(5), 516; doi:10.3390/ma10050516

Macroporous Calcium Phosphate/Chitosan Composites Prepared via Unidirectional Ice Segregation and Subsequent Freeze-Drying

1
Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid-ICMM, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-CSIC, Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid, Spain
2
Tissue Engineering Group, Institute of Biofunctional Studies, Associated Unit to the Institute of Polymer Science and Technology (CSIC), Pharmacy Faculty, Complutense University of Madrid (UCM), Paseo Juan 23, n1 28040, Madrid, Spain
3
Departamento de Tecnología Química y Energética, Tecnología Química y Ambiental y Tecnología Mecánica y Química Analítica, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Móstoles 28933, Madrid, Spain
Current address: Instituto de Estudios Biofuncionales, Departamento de Química Física II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Paseo Juan 23, n1 28040, Madrid, Spain.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dinesh Agrawal
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 1 May 2017 / Published: 8 May 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4846 KB, uploaded 8 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

Calcium phosphate chitosan-based composites have gained much interest in recent years for biomedical purposes. In this paper, three-dimensional calcium phosphate chitosan-based composites with different mineral contents were produced using a green method called ice segregation induced self-assembly (ISISA). In this methodology, ice crystals were used as a template to produce porous structures from an aqueous solution of chitosan (CS) and hydroxyapatite (Hap) also containing acetic acid (pH = 4.5). For better characterization of the nature of the inorganic matter entrapped within the resulting composite, we performed either oxygen plasma or calcination processes to remove the organic matter. The nature of the phosphate salts was studied by XRD and NMR studies. Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) was identified as the mineral phase in the composites submitted to oxygen plasma, whereas crystalline Hap was obtained after calcination. SEM microscopy revealed the formation of porous structures (porosity around 80–85%) in the original composites, as well as in the inorganic matrices obtained after calcination, with porous channels of up to 50 µm in diameter in the former case and of up to 20 µm in the latter. The biocompatibility of the composites was assessed using two different cell lines: C2C12GFP premyoblastic cells and MC3T3 preosteoblastic cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomineralization; amorphous calcium phosphate; hydroxyapatite; chitosan; biocompatibility biomineralization; amorphous calcium phosphate; hydroxyapatite; chitosan; biocompatibility
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Aranaz, I.; Martínez-Campos, E.; Moreno-Vicente, C.; Civantos, A.; García-Arguelles, S.; del Monte, F. Macroporous Calcium Phosphate/Chitosan Composites Prepared via Unidirectional Ice Segregation and Subsequent Freeze-Drying. Materials 2017, 10, 516.

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