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Materials 2017, 10(5), 455; doi:10.3390/ma10050455

Exploring the Modes of Action of Phosphorus-Based Flame Retardants in Polymeric Systems

Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), 12205 Berlin, Germany
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Academic Editor: De-Yi Wang
Received: 20 February 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)
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Abstract

Phosphorus-based flame retardants were incorporated into different, easily preparable matrices, such as polymeric thermoset resins and paraffin as a proposed model for polyolefins and investigated for their flame retardancy performance. The favored mode of action of each flame retardant was identified in each respective system and at each respective concentration. Thermogravimetric analysis was used in combination with infrared spectroscopy of the evolved gas to determine the pyrolysis behavior, residue formation and the release of phosphorus species. Forced flaming tests in the cone calorimeter provided insight into burning behavior and macroscopic residue effects. The results were put into relation to the phosphorus content to reveal correlations between phosphorus concentration in the gas phase and flame inhibition performance, as well as phosphorus concentration in the residue and condensed phase activity. Total heat evolved (fire load) and peak heat release rate were calculated based on changes in the effective heat of combustion and residue, and then compared with the measured values to address the modes of action of the flame retardants quantitatively. The quantification of flame inhibition, charring, and the protective layer effect measure the non-linear flame retardancy effects as functions of the phosphorus concentration. Overall, this screening approach using easily preparable polymer systems provides great insight into the effect of phosphorus in different flame retarded polymers, with regard to polymer structure, phosphorus concentration, and phosphorus species. View Full-Text
Keywords: flame retardants; flame inhibition; cone calorimeter; aluminum diethyl phosphinate; polyester; PMMA; epoxy resin; red phosphorus; BDP flame retardants; flame inhibition; cone calorimeter; aluminum diethyl phosphinate; polyester; PMMA; epoxy resin; red phosphorus; BDP
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Rabe, S.; Chuenban, Y.; Schartel, B. Exploring the Modes of Action of Phosphorus-Based Flame Retardants in Polymeric Systems. Materials 2017, 10, 455.

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