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Materials 2017, 10(3), 272; doi:10.3390/ma10030272

Structural Evolution during Milling, Annealing, and Rapid Consolidation of Nanocrystalline Fe–10Cr–3Al Powder

1
IITB-Monash Research Academy, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076, India
2
Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076, India
3
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India
4
International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, Hyderabad 500005, India
5
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800, Australia
6
Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jai-Sung Lee
Received: 30 January 2017 / Revised: 1 March 2017 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 9 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6666 KB, uploaded 9 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

Structural changes during the deformation-induced synthesis of nanocrystalline Fe–10Cr–3Al alloy powder via high-energy ball milling followed by annealing and rapid consolidation by spark plasma sintering were investigated. Reduction in crystallite size was observed during the synthesis, which was associated with the lattice expansion and rise in dislocation density, reflecting the generation of the excess grain boundary interfacial energy and the excess free volume. Subsequent annealing led to the exponential growth of the crystallites with a concomitant drop in the dislocation density. The rapid consolidation of the as-synthesized nanocrystalline alloy powder by the spark plasma sintering, on the other hand, showed only a limited grain growth due to the reduction of processing time for the consolidation by about 95% when compared to annealing at the same temperature. View Full-Text
Keywords: high-energy ball milling; nanocrystalline materials; X-ray diffraction; crystallite size; grain growth; activation energy; modified Williamson-Hall method high-energy ball milling; nanocrystalline materials; X-ray diffraction; crystallite size; grain growth; activation energy; modified Williamson-Hall method
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kumar, R.; Bakshi, S.R.; Joardar, J.; Parida, S.; Raja, V.S.; Singh Raman, R.K. Structural Evolution during Milling, Annealing, and Rapid Consolidation of Nanocrystalline Fe–10Cr–3Al Powder. Materials 2017, 10, 272.

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