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Materials 2017, 10(2), 190; doi:10.3390/ma10020190

Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Based Bio-Ink Improves Cell Viability and Homogeneity during Drop-On-Demand Printing

1
Singapore Centre for 3D Printing (SC3DP), School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Singapore
2
Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology (SIMTech), Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 73 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637662, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nicole Zander
Received: 14 January 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 16 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing for Biomedical Engineering)
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Abstract

Drop-on-demand (DOD) bioprinting has attracted huge attention for numerous biological applications due to its precise control over material volume and deposition pattern in a contactless printing approach. 3D bioprinting is still an emerging field and more work is required to improve the viability and homogeneity of printed cells during the printing process. Here, a general purpose bio-ink was developed using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) macromolecules. Different PVP-based bio-inks (0%–3% w/v) were prepared and evaluated for their printability; the short-term and long-term viability of the printed cells were first investigated. The Z value of a bio-ink determines its printability; it is the inverse of the Ohnesorge number (Oh), which is the ratio between the Reynolds number and a square root of the Weber number, and is independent of the bio-ink velocity. The viability of printed cells is dependent on the Z values of the bio-inks; the results indicated that the cells can be printed without any significant impairment using a bio-ink with a threshold Z value of ≤9.30 (2% and 2.5% w/v). Next, the cell output was evaluated over a period of 30 min. The results indicated that PVP molecules mitigate the cell adhesion and sedimentation during the printing process; the 2.5% w/v PVP bio-ink demonstrated the most consistent cell output over a period of 30 min. Hence, PVP macromolecules can play a critical role in improving the cell viability and homogeneity during the bioprinting process. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioprinting; bio-inks; drop-on-demand; 3D printing; additive manufacturing bioprinting; bio-inks; drop-on-demand; 3D printing; additive manufacturing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ng, W.L.; Yeong, W.Y.; Naing, M.W. Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Based Bio-Ink Improves Cell Viability and Homogeneity during Drop-On-Demand Printing. Materials 2017, 10, 190.

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