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Materials 2017, 10(2), 117; doi:10.3390/ma10020117

Precipitation of T1 and θ′ Phase in Al-4Cu-1Li-0.25Mn During Age Hardening: Microstructural Investigation and Phase-Field Simulation

1
Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Department 5: Materials Engineering, 12205 Berlin, Germany
2
Interdisciplinary Centre for Advanced Materials Simulation (ICAMS), Ruhr-University Bochum, 44801 Bochum, Germany
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ruhr-University Bochum, 44801 Bochum, Germany
4
Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, 14195 Berlin, Germany
5
Department of Heterogeneous Reactions, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, 45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter J. Uggowitzer
Received: 18 December 2016 / Revised: 17 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 28 January 2017
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Abstract

Experimental and phase field studies of age hardening response of a high purity Al-4Cu-1Li-0.25Mn-alloy (mass %) during isothermal aging are conducted. In the experiments, two hardening phases are identified: the tetragonal θ′ (Al2Cu) phase and the hexagonal T1 (Al2CuLi) phase. Both are plate shaped and of nm size. They are analyzed with respect to the development of their size, number density and volume fraction during aging by applying different analysis techniques in TEM in combination with quantitative microstructural analysis. 3D phase-field simulations of formation and growth of θ′ phase are performed in which the full interfacial, chemical and elastic energy contributions are taken into account. 2D simulations of T1 phase are also investigated using multi-component diffusion without elasticity. This is a first step toward a complex phase-field study of T1 phase in the ternary alloy. The comparison between experimental and simulated data shows similar trends. The still unsaturated volume fraction indicates that the precipitates are in the growth stage and that the coarsening/ripening stage has not yet been reached. View Full-Text
Keywords: Al-Cu-Li-alloy; precipitates; age hardening; volume fraction; number density; microstructure; phase-field modeling; elasticity; multi-component diffusion; growth kinetics Al-Cu-Li-alloy; precipitates; age hardening; volume fraction; number density; microstructure; phase-field modeling; elasticity; multi-component diffusion; growth kinetics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Häusler, I.; Schwarze, C.; Bilal, M.U.; Ramirez, D.V.; Hetaba, W.; Kamachali, R.D.; Skrotzki, B. Precipitation of T1 and θ′ Phase in Al-4Cu-1Li-0.25Mn During Age Hardening: Microstructural Investigation and Phase-Field Simulation. Materials 2017, 10, 117.

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