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Materials 2017, 10(10), 1188; doi:10.3390/ma10101188

Bioactivity and Cell Compatibility of β-Wollastonite Derived from Rice Husk Ash and Limestone

School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science & Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 28 September 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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The aim of this study was to prepare β-wollastonite using a green synthesis method (autoclaving technique) without organic solvents and to study its bioactivity. To prepare β-wollastonite, the precursor ratio of CaO:SiO2 was set at 55:45. This mixture was autoclaved for 8 h and later sintered at 950 °C for 2 h. The chemical composition of the precursors was studied using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), in which rice husk ash consists of 89.5 wt % of SiO2 in a cristobalite phase and calcined limestone contains 97.2 wt % of CaO. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns after sintering showed that only β-wollastonite was detected as the single phase. To study its bioactivity and degradation properties, β-wollastonite samples were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various periods of time. Throughout the soaking period, the molar ratio of Ca/P obtained was in the range of 1.19 to 2.24, and the phase detected was amorphous calcium phosphate, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX) and XRD. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated that the peaks of the calcium and phosphate ions increased when an amorphous calcium phosphate layer was formed on the surface of the β-wollastonite sample. A cell viability and proliferation assay test was performed on the rice husk ash, calcined limestone, and β-wollastonite samples by scanning electron microscope. For heavy metal element evaluation, a metal panel that included As, Cd, Pb, and Hg was selected, and both precursor and β-wollastonite fulfilled the requirement of an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM F1538-03) standard specification. Apart from that, a degradation test showed that the loss of mass increased incrementally as a function of soaking period. These results showed that the β-wollastonite materials produced from rice husk ash and limestone possessed good bioactivity, offering potential for biomedical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: autoclaving; bioactive; wollastonite; green synthesize; rice husk ash autoclaving; bioactive; wollastonite; green synthesize; rice husk ash

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Shamsudin, R.; Abdul Azam, F.‘.; Abdul Hamid, M.A.; Ismail, H. Bioactivity and Cell Compatibility of β-Wollastonite Derived from Rice Husk Ash and Limestone. Materials 2017, 10, 1188.

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