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Energies 2016, 9(7), 538; doi:10.3390/en9070538

Optimal Coordinated Management of a Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Station under a Flexible Penalty Contract for Voltage Security

1
Power System Research Division, Korea Electrical Engineering & Science Research Institute, Bldg. 130, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
2
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
3
School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, 145 Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: G. J. M. (Gerard) Smit
Received: 30 March 2016 / Revised: 27 June 2016 / Accepted: 8 July 2016 / Published: 13 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decentralized Management of Energy Streams in Smart Grids)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3320 KB, uploaded 13 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

The increasing penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) may cause a low-voltage problem in the distribution network. In particular, the introduction of charging stations where multiple PEVs are simultaneously charged at the same bus can aggravate the low-voltage problem. Unlike a distribution network operator (DNO) who has the overall responsibility for stable and reliable network operation, a charging station operator (CSO) may schedule PEV charging without consideration for the resulting severe voltage drop. Therefore, there is a need for the DNO to impose a coordination measure to induce the CSO to adjust its charging schedule to help mitigate the voltage problem. Although the current time-of-use (TOU) tariff is an indirect coordination measure that can motivate the CSO to shift its charging demand to off-peak time by imposing a high rate at the peak time, it is limited by its rigidity in that the network voltage condition cannot be flexibly reflected in the tariff. Therefore, a flexible penalty contract (FPC) for voltage security to be used as a direct coordination measure is proposed. In addition, the optimal coordinated management is formulated. Using the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) 69-bus test distribution network, the effectiveness of the coordination was verified by comparison with the current TOU tariff. View Full-Text
Keywords: plug-in electric vehicle (PEV); voltage security; penalty contract; optimal charging management plug-in electric vehicle (PEV); voltage security; penalty contract; optimal charging management
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kim, J.; Kim, S.W.; Jin, Y.G.; Park, J.-K.; Yoon, Y.T. Optimal Coordinated Management of a Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Station under a Flexible Penalty Contract for Voltage Security. Energies 2016, 9, 538.

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