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Energies 2016, 9(5), 354; doi:10.3390/en9050354

How the Starting Precursor Influences the Properties of Polycrystalline CuInGaSe2 Thin Films Prepared by Sputtering and Selenization

1
Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 7/A, Parma 43124, Italy
2
Computer Science Department, University of Verona, Ca’ Vignal 1, Strada Le Grazie 15, Verona 37134, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jean-Michel Nunzi
Received: 22 January 2016 / Revised: 8 April 2016 / Accepted: 27 April 2016 / Published: 10 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Key Developments in Thin Film Solar Cells)
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Abstract

Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS)/CdS thin-film solar cells have reached, at laboratory scale, an efficiency higher than 22.3%, which is one of the highest efficiencies ever obtained for thin-film solar cells. The research focus has now shifted onto fabrication processes, which have to be easily scalable at an industrial level. For this reason, a process is highlighted here which uses only the sputtering technique for both the absorber preparation and the deposition of all the other materials that make up the cell. Particular emphasis is placed on the comparison between different precursors obtained with either In2Se3 and Ga2Se3 or InSe and GaSe as starting materials. In both cases, the precursor does not require any heat treatment, and it is immediately ready to be selenized. The selenization is performed in a pure-selenium atmosphere and only lasts a few minutes at a temperature of about 803 K. Energy conversion efficiencies in the range of 15%–16% are reproducibly obtained on soda-lime glass (SLG) substrates. Similar results are achieved if commercial ceramic tiles are used as a substrate instead of glass. This result is especially useful for the so-called building integrated photovoltaic. Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based solar cells grown directly on ceramic tiles are ideal for the fabrication of ventilated façades in low impact buildings. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS); thin-film solar cell; sputtering; precursors Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS); thin-film solar cell; sputtering; precursors
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Rosa, G.; Bosio, A.; Menossi, D.; Romeo, N. How the Starting Precursor Influences the Properties of Polycrystalline CuInGaSe2 Thin Films Prepared by Sputtering and Selenization. Energies 2016, 9, 354.

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