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Energies 2016, 9(5), 317; doi:10.3390/en9050317

Power Production Losses Study by Frequency Regulation in Weak-Grid-Connected Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Plants

1
Research & Development Department, GPTech, 26 Av. de Camas, Bollullos de la Mitacion 41110, Spain
2
Department of Electronic Engineering, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, 1680 Av. de España, Valparaiso 2390123, Chile
3
Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Seville, S/N Av. de los Descubrimientos, Seville 41092, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: João P. S. Catalão
Received: 17 February 2016 / Revised: 18 March 2016 / Accepted: 6 April 2016 / Published: 25 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Distributed Renewable Generation)

Abstract

Nowadays, an increasing penetration of utility-scale photovoltaic plants (USPVPs) leads to a change in dynamic and operational characteristics of the power distribution system. USPVPs must help to maintain the system stability and reliability while implementing minimum technical requirements (MTRs) imposed by the utility grid. One of the most significant requirements is about frequency regulation (FR). Overall production of USPVPs is reduced significantly by applying FR curves, especially in weak grids with high rate of frequency faults. The introduction of a battery energy storage system (BESS) reduces losses and improves the grid system reliability. Experimental frequency and irradiance data of several weak grids have been used to analyse USPVPs losses related to FR requirements and benefits from the introduction of a BESS. Moreover, its economic viability is showen without the need for any economic incentives. View Full-Text
Keywords: distributed generators; battery energy storage system (BESS); frequency regulation (FR); utility-scale photovoltaic plants (USPVPs); weak grids distributed generators; battery energy storage system (BESS); frequency regulation (FR); utility-scale photovoltaic plants (USPVPs); weak grids
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Muñoz-Cruzado-Alba, J.; Rojas, C.A.; Kouro, S.; Galván Díez, E. Power Production Losses Study by Frequency Regulation in Weak-Grid-Connected Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Plants. Energies 2016, 9, 317.

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