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Energies 2016, 9(4), 287; doi:10.3390/en9040287

Load Concentration Factor Based Analytical Method for Optimal Placement of Multiple Distribution Generators for Loss Minimization and Voltage Profile Improvement

1
Energy Department, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Vienna 1210, Austria
2
Institute of Energy Systems and Electrical Drives, TU Wien, Wien 1040, Austria
3
Department Electrical Sustainable Energy, TU Delft, Delft 2628 CD, The Netherlands
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: João P. S. Catalão
Received: 10 February 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2016 / Accepted: 6 April 2016 / Published: 14 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Distributed Renewable Generation)
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Abstract

This paper presents novel separate methods for finding optimal locations, sizes of multiple distributed generators (DGs) simultaneously and operational power factor in order to minimize power loss and improve the voltage profile in the distribution system. A load concentration factor (LCF) is introduced to select the optimal location(s) for DG placement. Exact loss formula based analytical expressions are derived for calculating the optimal sizes of any number of DGs simultaneously. Since neither optimizing the location nor optimizing the size is done iteratively, like existing methods do, the simulation time is reduced considerably. The exhaustive method is used to find the operational power factor, and it is shown with the results that the losses are further reduced and voltage profile is improved by operating the DGs at operational power factor. Results for power loss reduction and voltage profile improvement in IEEE 37 and 119 node radial distribution systems are presented and compared with the the loss sensitivity factor (LSF) method, improved analytical (IA) and exhaustive load flow method (ELF). The comparison for operational power factor and other power factors is also presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: loss minimization; voltage profile improvement; simultaneous optimal sizing; multiple distributed generatores (DGs); load concentration factor (LCF), operational power factor; primary distribution system; loss sensitivity factor (LSF); improved analytic (IA); exhaustive load flow (ELF) loss minimization; voltage profile improvement; simultaneous optimal sizing; multiple distributed generatores (DGs); load concentration factor (LCF), operational power factor; primary distribution system; loss sensitivity factor (LSF); improved analytic (IA); exhaustive load flow (ELF)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Shahzad, M.; Ahmad, I.; Gawlik, W.; Palensky, P. Load Concentration Factor Based Analytical Method for Optimal Placement of Multiple Distribution Generators for Loss Minimization and Voltage Profile Improvement. Energies 2016, 9, 287.

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