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Energies 2016, 9(3), 207; doi:10.3390/en9030207

Progress on Low-Temperature Pulsed Electron Deposition of CuInGaSe2 Solar Cells

1
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto Materiali per l'Elettronica e il Magnetismo (CNR-IMEM), Parco Area delle Scienze 37/a, Parma 43124, Italy
2
Department of Physics, University of Parma, Parma 43124, Italy
3
Department of Physics, St.Thomas’ College, Thrissur, Kerala 680001, India
4
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto di Microelettronica e Microsistemi (CNR-IMM), University Campus, Lecce 73100, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: José Antonio Sánchez Pérez
Received: 15 January 2016 / Revised: 25 February 2016 / Accepted: 11 March 2016 / Published: 16 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Key Developments in Thin Film Solar Cells)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3437 KB, uploaded 16 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

The quest for single-stage deposition of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) is an open race to replace very effective but capital intensive thin film solar cell manufacturing processes like multiple-stage coevaporation or sputtering combined with high pressure selenisation treatments. In this paper the most recent achievements of Low Temperature Pulsed Electron Deposition (LTPED), a novel single stage deposition process by which CIGS can be deposited at 250 °C, are presented and discussed. We show that selenium loss during the film deposition is not a problem with LTPED as good crystalline films are formed very close to the melting temperature of selenium. The mechanism of formation of good ohmic contacts between CIGS and Mo in the absence of any MoSe2 transition layers is also illustrated, followed by a brief summary of the measured characteristics of test solar cells grown by LTPED. The 17% efficiency target achieved by lab-scale CIGS devices without bandgap modulation, antireflection coating or K-doping is considered to be a crucial milestone along the path to the industrial scale-up of LTPED. The paper ends with a brief review of the open scientific and technological issues related to the scale-up and the possible future applications of the new technology. View Full-Text
Keywords: photovoltaics; thin films; pulsed electron deposition; CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) photovoltaics; thin films; pulsed electron deposition; CuInGaSe2 (CIGS)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Mazzer, M.; Rampino, S.; Gombia, E.; Bronzoni, M.; Bissoli, F.; Pattini, F.; Calicchio, M.; Kingma, A.; Annoni, F.; Calestani, D.; Cavallari, N.; Thottapurath Vijayan, V.; Lomascolo, M.; Cretì, A.; Gilioli, E. Progress on Low-Temperature Pulsed Electron Deposition of CuInGaSe2 Solar Cells. Energies 2016, 9, 207.

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